A Word on Inclusive Education in the 21st Century
by Julie Ann Racino May 2017
In 2014, special education published a new two volume text (The SAGE Handbook of Special Education, by Florian) with inclusive education in nation-states (e.g., China, India, Japan, US, Germany, Singapore, England, Scotland, Soviet Union, Argentina, Kenya, Sweden) through the academic publishing company, SAGE. The texts complement the book, Inclusive Education Across Cultures (Alur & Timmons, 2009), reviewed in 2016 on amazon.com and myriad texts describing schools and transition to adulthood (e.g., post secondary education, employment) (e.g., Rusch, et al, 1992, Wikipedia, 2009/2012).
This author, who recently released a book in public administration and public affairs (Racino, 2015), was delighted to find Dean Douglas Biklen of School of Education, Syracuse University discussing the new disability studies in America, and then 1990s international student Dr. Maya Kaylanpur (in Alur) highlighting the Western concept of inclusion in India. In addition, Dr. Martha Thurlow, of the University of Minnesota, discussed instructional assessments and accomodations (e.g., speech to text, student calculators, extended time) in the 21st Century. These accomodations are similar to those recommended in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (core disability rights law, US) at Disability Services Offices on college campuses.
Core US Laws and Programs
Inclusive Education has roots in "integrated education", in "mainstreaming", and in early efforts to promote better teaching and learning during the early years. Leading Syracuse faculty from the 1970s and 1980s (e.g., Dr. Carol Berrigan, Dr. Steven J. Taylor) began a reversal of the institutional model, choosing education and schooling for children with disabilities, in conjunction with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974, often known today as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and IDEIA (PL 108-446). Of course, early models of integration still abound from the resource room concept (a base site) in the mainstreaming schools, and "reverse integration" such as Jowonio School in Syracuse (Ellen Barnes, Human Policy Press author), where great private school teaching attracted both those "with and without disabilities".
Core World Initiatives in Education
The new textbook highlights key multi-decade events framing worldwide education initiatives, advocacy and public policy. In particular, 155 countries were represented at the 1990 World Conference on Education for All in Jontien, Thailand which was followed by the Salamanca Statement on Inclusive Schooling (1994), and in 2000 by the World Education Framework developed in Dakar (e.g., Pumpian & Devecchi, 2014). These complement the work of the United Nations reflected in the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006), the UN Equalization of Opportunities for Disabled Persons (1993), the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), and the original UN Declaration on Human Rights (1948), among others. Many of us, of course, recall the UN World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons back in 1982!
In 2017, the world also has the benefit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), subsequent to the United Nation's Millenium Development Goals, including the right of girls to education* (Education by All for 2015) and gender equality principles and goals. These goals extend to areas as diverse as the environment (above and below the water), political participation (e.g., elections and leadership), work and economic security, clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, climate action, quality education, peace-justice-strong institutions, reduced inequalities, industry, innovation and infrastructure, and sustainable cities and communities (See, Blogspot/Community and Policy Studies, 2016).
Special Education and Inclusive Education
Countries Around the World Reported Integration as Most Important in Their Policies and Practices (UNESCO, 1996)
Both special and inclusive education are the "same education field" representing different concepts and philosophies of educating children with "special education needs" (SEN). While "community integrationists" (See, wikipedia) utilize a base norm of "regular schools", special educators often begin with a norm of their subfield (e.g., designated children to be served by diagnostic categories) and extend "their thinking" to the school systems and community programs. Many excellent ideas on friendships among childhood peers, on inspiration in teaching and learning, and on supporting children and their families (e.g., Zana Lutfiyya, Jeff Strully, Betsy Edinger) are credited to these inclusive education efforts. This book (Florian, 2014) reports approximately half of the designated children are served in regular education settings in the US.
The contemporary issues in special education and inclusive education involve the concept of equity, as in who benefits (Kosleski, Artilles, & Waitoller, 2014), differences between Brofenbrenner's Head Start and early childhood programs, the roles of special schools in nation-states, education of teachers in special education needs, validation of culturally and linguistically responsive special education models of service delivery, basic laws (e.g., National Education Policies, India) and positive promotion of people with disabilities, global commitments, capability approaches to children with special education needs, and assurance that diverse needs of children (e.g., hearing, vision, learning) are met, including in general education settings. In addition, relationships with world partners, such as Disabled People International in over 100 countries (Mukhopadhyay, 2009) are critical in the challenges of the coming decades.
Alur, M. & Timmons, V. (2009). Inclusive Education Across Cultures: Crossing Boundaries, Sharing Ideas. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
-Kaylanpur, M. (2009). Cultural variations on the construct of self advocacy in the Indian context. (pp. 331-341).
-Mukhopadhyay, S. (2009). Rethinking inclusive education: Action points for communities.
Florian, L. (2014). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education, Volumes 1&2. Los Angeles, CA: sage.
- Biklen, D., Orsati, F. & Bacon, J. (2014). A disability studies frame for research approaches in special education. (pp. 351-368).
- DeVecchi, C. (2014). Glossary, Quotation by Ian Pumpian. (p. 945).
- Fowler, J., Ostrosky, M. & Yates, T. (2014). Teaching and learning in the early years. (pp. 613-632).
- Kozleski, E., Artiles, A., & Waitoller, F. (2014). Equity in inclusive education: A cultural historical comparative perspective. (pp. 231-251).
-Thurlow, M. (2014). Instructional and assessment accomodations in the 21st century. (pp. 597-612).
Racino, J. (2015). Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. London and NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.
Racino, J. (2016, September 3). Review of Inclusive Education Across Cultures: Crossing Boundaries, Sharing Ideas by Mithu Alur. New Delhi, India. http://www.amazon.com product reviews.
Rusch, F., DeStefano, L., Chadsey-Rusch, J., Phelps, L.A., & Szymanski, E. (1992). Transition from Youth to Adult Life: Models, Linkages and Policy. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co.
United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. UN Sustainable Development Summit 2015. NY, NY: Author. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/
Wikipedia. (2009/2012). Supported Employment. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supported_employment
Wikipedia. (2012/2014). Community Integration.
For those readers who wish to know the history before inclusive education, early frameworks on Quality Education for All (e.g., Lipsky & Gartner, 1989) and Schooling Without Labels (Biklen, 1992) were popular in that period as academic leadership. However, the true predecessors of "disability strands" were called integrated early education programs (Center on Human Policy, 1986) and integrated school programs for the students with "severe disabilities" ( Center on Human Policy, 1986).
Our doctoral student James Knoll who worked on the Community Integration Project (Taylor, Racino & Knoll) at Syracuse University, also cited with Luanna Meyer, a "severe disabilities" professor, Doug Biklen's new Achieving the Complete School (1985), and of course, Doug (just retired) later became Dean of the entire School of Education.
That period of time in America was the real struggle on "IQ" and whether a person should be treated by their mental or chronological age (adults often were treated as young children). New positions and theories arose from the "criterion of ultimate functioning" (Lou Brown from Madison "severe disabilities" and the Nietupskis in 1976!), to chronologically age appropriate programs and functional curriculum (also Lou Brown, Ian Pumpian, Alison Ford) and to our "law class of professionals" enforcing provisions of the 1970s "education and disability" PL 94-142 and Section 504 (Gilhool & Stutman, 1978).
The bibliographies for the project, available to the public and professionals, ranged from integrated preschools, to mainstreaming models and comparisons of preschool for "handicapped and non-handicapped children". The extensive peer-reviewed academic articles began in the 1970s with integration of "hearing impaired and "young deaf children", and the debate on "integration and segregation" has continued to this day. However, the reviews were not conducted with (but supportive of) Claudia Stockley, Nan Carle, Carol Berrigan, and Dianne Apter who are the actual designated government to university employees responsible in those areas. In particular, Ann Turnbull, just retiring from the Beach Center on Families in Kansas, is supporting preschool mainstreaming, Head Start, Division of Early Childhood, and Pediatric Psychology!
Janet Duncan's materials packet was on integrated education and has Carol Berrigan's article on All Students Belong in the Classroom: Johnson City Central Schools, Johnson City, New York and the critical, Schooling and Disability that Doug Biklen published with Dianne Ferguson and Allison Ford, his faculty at Syracuse at the time of their transition to permanent university positions. Marcia Forest, a Canadian favorite at school integration, and the Arc of Minnesota were actively supporting school integration, and the movement was throughout the US. Cooperative learning, reminiscent of Montessori practices, comes in as a separate initiative in education, or part of how good teachers instill love of learning in group settings.
James Knoll, being ambitious to achieve his later university Chair position, and national research articles, also authored with Luanna Meyer from the Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Principles and Practices for School Integration of Students with Severe Disabilities: An Overview of the Literature which appeared in Managerial Models of Mainstreaming from Aspen Publishers (Publishing projects of Peter Knobloch). Luanna Meyer later worked in New York with the school systems here ("behavioral"as all was located in the last review for my new book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US -Racino, 2014). James did cite Steve Taylor's school integration article, From segregation to integration in the Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps (1982) which he finished before I arrived at Syracuse University.
A Few Community Integration Wishes: Why? Because it is a Blog!
James Knoll applied for our federal research center positions in US states (US Education funded involving non-profits, state governments and institutional and community populations, and in review at health and human services) working at Wayne State University (Michigan center) with Michael Peterson.
During that time, I was off in 35 plus states onsite on the federal Community Integration (wikipedia), and then, funded twice with Taylor (recently deceased, 2014), for new national Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers on Community Integration for 10 years (Bonnie Shoultz and Hank Bersani arrived about here). Later came the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center Networks in the US (e.g., Racino with Lakin in DC; Racino with Heumann in CA -actually designated by Taylor), and much later the Disability Studies Programs in Education (e.g., Taylor at Syracuse; Brown in Hawaii; Bates in New York City).
Best wishes to James and Luanna as they reach their retirements gates in this period of time, Luanna back in her native Hawaii and James from the state of Kentucky higher education system; they are joining Douglas Biklen, Carol Berrigan and Robert Bogdan in retirement, and I might add, still not locating Doug's wife and Bob's research methods coauthor, Dr. Sari Biklen, Cultural Foundations of Education at Syracuse University (women in education annuals, US).
However, Michael Guralnick was highly cited in early intervention, and will be found at these academic services, today, and of course, I did meet Jeff Strully in Kentucky back in 1985 (friendships and our children -family first- or non-profit NGOs and the state governments), and he has been a CEO in three states! The Stainbacks "of course" from Iowa graciously assisted through the years at the research and schools for all in the US, as did Charles Peck with the Community Participation Book Reviews for the Series.
And Gaylord-Ross has already passed in the public school integration sets with Robert York newly retiring, and Allison Ford and Syracuse's Linda Davern. In case anyone wonders, Wolf Wolfensberger (now deceased) did in the 1970s support very young integration of children, and forms of family support (not even named as such then), but to my knowledge taught ("Residential Services" -manual upstairs was very, very good) but did not publish in those areas in refereed journals (as normalization, social role valorization). He also did not teach clinical psychology (I later was a graduate student in this field as a medical student in Chicago, and had undergraduate work at Cornell before meeting him) which was his new educational background for the school systems.
Greetings also to Sue Lehr (with husband Bob, and son Ben) of Tully, New York, who was writing on self advocacy with Steve Taylor in the extensive citations and is known with Peter Knoblock for College for Living (we started it new back in the 1970s) at Onondaga Community College. Stan Searl was over at Union College in New York, and was also a friend of Steve Taylors. For the parents at after school programs, comes in about Davern and Ford, at the community agencies, and Jennifer York was in with Terri Vandercook from Minnesota (See, also Colleen Weick, State DD Council and Partners in Policymaking). Dianne Ferguson (site visit to Oregon, community residences) and Phil Ferguson are "still together" and out West, and Phil was found at historical institutional writings. Janet Duncan was at SUNY-Cortland and education and disability departmental in the late 2000s.
Just added in Ann and Rud Turnbull's special education textbook from 1995 with the concepts of inclusion, zero reject, cooperative teaching, natural proportions, and special education supports with in general education. Zero reject came from the community sector and led to the concepts of community services for all in the US. Ann and Rud also highlight key concepts from cultural competence (perennial), parent-to-parent, and the importance of children's friend-ships. Best wishes in their retirements!!
Arc of Minnesota. (1988). Integrated education. FOCUS, Winter, 4-5.
Berrigan, C. (1989, November). All students belong in the classroom: Johnson City Central Schools, Johnson City, New York. TASH Newsletter, 6-7.
Biklen, D. (1985). Achieving the Complete School: Strategies for Effective Mainstreaming. NY, NY: Teachers College Press.
Biklen, D. (1992). Schooling Without Labels: Parents, Educators and Inclusive Education. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Biklen, D., Ferguson, D. & Ford, A. (1989). Schooling and Disability. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Bogdan, R. (1983). "Does Mainstreaming Work?" is a silly quesiton. Phi Delta Kappan, 64: 427-428.
Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1982). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Brown, L., Ford, A., Nisbet, J., Sweet, M., Donnellan, A., & Gruenwald, L. (1983). Opportunities available when severely handicapped students attend chronological age appropriate regular schools. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped,
Brown, L., Nietupski, J., & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (1976). Criterion of ultimate functioning. In: M. A. Thomas, Hey, Don't Forget About Me! (pp. 2-15). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
Center on Human Policy. (1986, March). Materials on Integrated Early Education Programs for Children with Severe Disabilities. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Community Integration Project.
Center on Human Policy. (1986). Materials on Integrated School Programs for Students with Severe Disabilities. (Bibliography, James Knoll). Syracuse, NY: Community Integration Prject, Center on Human Policy.
Duncan, J. (1990, May). Materials on Integrated Education. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation and Research and Training Center on Community Integration.
Ford, A. & Davern, L. (1989). Moving forward with school integration: Strategies for involving students with severe handicaps in life of the school. In: R. Gaylord-Ross, Integration Strategies for Persons with Handicaps. (pp. 11-31). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Ford, A., Foster, S.B., Searl, S.J., &Taylor, S.J. (1984). The Brown School Model Project: A Description. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy.
Forest, M. (1984). Education/Integration: A Collection of Readings on the Integration of Children with Mental Handicaps into Regular School Systems. Downsview, Ontario: The G. Allan Roeher Institute.
Gaylord-Ross, R. & Peck, C.A. (1985). Integration efforts for students with severe mental retardation. In: D. Bricker, & J. Filler (Eds.), Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice. (pp. 185-207). Reston, MD: Divison on Mental Retardation, Council for Exceptional Chldren.
Gilhool, T. & Stutman, E. (1978). Integration of severely handicapped students: Toward criteria for implementing and enforcing the integration imperative of PL 94-142 and Section 504. In LRE: Developing Criteria for Evaluation of the Least Restrictive Environment Provision. Washington, DC: US Office of Education, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped.
Guralnick, M.J. (1976). The value of integrating handicapped and non-handicapped preschool chldren. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46: 236-245.
Guralnick, M. (1980). Social interactions among preschool children. Exceptional Children, 46: 248-253.
Hamre-Nietupski, S., Nietupski, J., Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1984). Preparing school systems for longitudinal integration efforts. In: N. Certo, N. Haring, & R. York, Public School Integration of Severely Handicapped Students: Rational Issues and Progressive Alternatives. (pp. 104-141). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Knoll, J. & Meyer, L. (1985). Principles and practices for school integration of students with severe disabilties: An overview of the literature. In: M. Berres & P. Knoblock, Managerial Models of Mainstreaming. Rockville, MD: Aspen.
Lehr, S. & Taylor, S.J. (1986). Preparing for Life: A Manual for Parents on the Least Restrictive Environment. Boston, MA: Technical Assistance for Parent Programs, Federation of Children with Special Needs.
Lipsky, D. & Gartner, A. (1989). Beyond Separate Education: Quality Education for All. (pp. 255-290). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Meyer, L.H. & Kishi, G.S. (1985). School integration strategies. In: K.C. Lakin & R.H. Bruininks, Strategies for Achieving the Community Integration for Developmentally Disabled Citizens. (pp. 231-252). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Racino, J. (1999). Youth and community life: Perspectives of adults with disabilities on personal assistance services. Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. (pp. 207-224). NY, NY and London: The Haworth Press.
Racino, J. (1999). The role of family case study research in family policy: Local agency delivery systems. In: Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. (pp. 235-261). Binghamton, NY and London, UK: Haworth Press.
Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1984). A rationale for the merger of special and regualr education. Exceptional Children, 51: 102-111.
Strully, J. & Strully, C. (1985). Friendship and our children. Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10: 224-227.
Taylor, S. J. (1982). From segregation to integration: Strategies for integrating severely handicapped students in normal school and community settings. Journal of the Association of the Severely Handicapped, 7(3): 42-49.
Taylor, S.J., Biklen, D., Lehr, S., & Searl, S.J. (1987). Purposeful Integration..Inherently Equal. Boston, MA: Technical Assistance for Parent Programs (TAPP), Federation for Children with Special Needs.
Turnbull, A.P. (1982). Preschool mainstreaming a policy and implementing analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 4(3): 281-291.
Turnbull, A.P. & Blacher-Dixon, J. (1979). Mainstreaming handicapped children in Region IV Head Start. In: A. R. Sanford & H. C. Henley, The 1979 Report of Services to the Handicapped Region IV Head Start. Chapel, NC: Training-Outreach Project.
Turnbull, A., Turnbull, H.R., Shank, M., & Leal, D. (1995). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools. Englewood, NJ: Englewood Cliffs.
Turnbull, A.P. & Winton, P. J. (1983). A comparison of specialized and mainstreamed preschools from the perspectives of parents of handicapped children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8(1): 57-71.
Voeltz, L.M (1980). Children's attitudes toward handicapped peers. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88: 630-637.
Voetltz, L.M. (1982). Effects of structured interaction with severely handicapped peers on children's attitudes. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86: 380-390.
Voeltz, L.M. (1984). Program and curriculum innovations to prepare children for integration. In: N. Certo, N. Haring, & R. York, Public School Integration of Severely Handicapped Students: Rational Issues and Progressive Alternatives. (pp. 155-183). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
York, J., Vandercook, T., & MacDonald, C. (1989). Feedback from Educators and Classmates about Inclusion in Middle School. Minneapolis, MN: Universityof Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.
York, J., Vandercook, T., MacDonald, C. & Wolff, S. (1989). Strategies for Full Inclusion. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration.