Tuesday, October 3, 2017

A WORD TO THE WISE ON PUBLIC BUDGETING, FINANCE AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS

A Word to the Wise on Public Budgeting, Finance and Special Populations 

By Julie Ann Racino, Member of American Society for Public Administration
October 3, 2017 

     In the middle of the 2017 election campaigns, which today have new northeast woman Mayors running and winning small to medium size city offices, and new black Mayors, both men and women, in cities in the South and Mid-West such as Houston, Texas (on news, this week; kickoff by Gwen Ifill, 2009, now deceased), we will take a minute to examine Public Budgeting and Finance.

    The term Special Populations as opposed to general populations, usually refers to sub-population groups, for example in disability fields from broad mental health populations, to populations with heart disease, intellectual and developmental disabilities, or sensory impairments (e.g., visual, hearing, sense of smell). Special populations may also refer to clients of a department or program, though that is often a misnomer - child abuse and neglect, criminal justice and offenders with disabilities, low income or below poverty thresholds. Why? That's the origin of disability as distinct from the General Population, and also as part of the general population (e.g., Marcuse, 1989, issue of housing).  Community integration (see, wikipedia, federal use) is based upon assumptions and beliefs about "special populations", in addition to research related to the General Population.

     In areas such as employment and hiring (Human Capital), the term "protected classes" under human rights laws is less popular in 2017, and many people who never understood affirmative action in the first place, were then a bit taken aback by needing to be colorblind!  Why? Well, who writes about protected classes as a chosen or designated job is usually, the protected class members (See, composition of EEO, 2016)! Is it still true today after the Obama Presidential election and second term? Yes and no. For example, when there is women in public administration next to minority (male, black) public administration at public planning, is it surprising that America remains as a segregated and divided society (Carr & Kutty, 2008, Segregation: The rising costs to America)?

    Now, I have just examined the three issues of Public Budgeting and Finance (2017), and already the lead issue authors almost separated into one issue of woman leadership! And as our feminist authors (e.g., Fine & Asch, 1988; Traustadottir, 2006) would "not state", writing not as women (a peculiar thought according to the "other women" who have not had their consciousness raised by "their sisters"), but as "male job peers" in an unjust society. Yet, all striving for "equal pay and benefits" to their gender counterparts discounting the factors of social class and, surprisingly, then merit (from an Ivy!). Thus, this author's first personal essay on the subject after Junior Achievement Treasurer of the Year (Indiana, 1967- "mixed gender" or "co-ed") and real hospital and entrepreneur, business budgets!

       In these 2017 issues, however, the themes revolve around public borrowing "for private organizations" and municipalities, public pensions as a liability in the new "public bankruptcies", special district financing, the new role of tax and expenditure limits (e.g., on property taxes),  municipal bonds versus new municipal purchases, "subnational debt in Mexico" (e.g., Smith & Benton, 2017) and "Italian regulation", the role of insurance and underwriting, banking and transportation infrastructure, case study of New York budget process, casino taxes and future revenue expectations (e.g. Srinivasan & Lambert, 2017), and fracturing, taxes and the environment. Interesting are the authors, who for example, recommended commercial over development banks, and long-term debt management plans (for government to carry high debt) which have also led to bankruptcies.

      At the American Society for Public Administration, we now have a new LGBT (lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender) Section and the standing Women in Public Administration Section (SWPA), and Women Section Chairs and Presidents of the Association. However, disability has been ushered to its Special Population Associations other than as part of the general association itself (e.g., ASPA as Non-Voluntary Governance, all federal categories, and as Federal, Local and State Governments). That brings us back to the Nothing About Us Without Us (Charlton, 2000- as the Association enters domains of international world order, rule of law, decades of worldwide NGO growth (e.g., women, disability, ethnic), and "involuntary care" hidden from the public eyes.

    With the growth in health care and health care financing, and "publicly approved" designations of human service NGOs as health care organizations, the role of communities, advocacy, independent and supportive living (See, wikipedia), supported housing and supported employment, non-profit human services, and governance are changing considerably, especially post-911 (e.g., Racino, 2015, ASPA. Chicago, Illinois).  The shifting of US budgets-personnel and government- to an extra-ordinary health care system, together with privatization of essential government functions outside the public eye, has raised the importance of these matters to the health, well being and futures of local individuals, families and communities in America (and worldwide).

References
Carr, J. & Kutty, N. (2008). Segregation: The Rising Costs of America. NY, NY: Routledge.

Charlton, J.I. (2000). Nothing About Us Without Us: Disability Oppression and Empowerment. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California.

Fine, M. & Asch, A. (1988). Women with Disabilities: Essays in Psychology, Culture and Politics. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Ifill, G. (2009). The Breakthrough: Politics and Race in the Age of Obama. NY, NY: Doubleday Publishers.

Marcuse, P. (1989). The pitfalls of specialism: Special groups and general problem of housing. In: C. Hartman & S. Rosenberrry (Eds.), Housing Issues in the 1990s. NY, NY: Praeger.

Racino, J.A. (2015). Community Financing in the 21st Century: The Rise in Health Care Financing in the Community. Chicago, Illinois: American Society for Public Administration. [Budget and Finance Section Member]

Smith, H.J.M. & Benton, A.L. (2017). The role of metropolitan cooperation and administrative capacity in subnational debt dynamics: Evidence from municipal Mexico. Public Budgeting and Finance, 37(2): 58-82.

Srinivasan, A.K. & Lambert, T.E. (2017). The impact of stagnating casino revenues on state and local governments tax receipts. Public Budgeting and Finance, 37(1): 26-46.

Traustadottir, R. (2006). Disability and gender: Introduction to the special issue. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 8: 81-84.

Wikipedia. (2012). Community Integration, Supportive Living, Supported Housing

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Contributions to Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach

Contributions to Client-Centered Therapy and Person-Centered Approach

Julie Ann Racino, MAPA, BA

September 2017

        In 1977, after working for two years after graduating from Cornell University, I headed for my first choice of our Nation's clinical psychology programs- Northwestern University Medical School. Located off the shores of Lake Michigan,  in downtown Chicago, it was there that I met Nat Raskin, whom I later learned worked with the illustrious psychologist, Dr. Carl Rogers, in encounter groups in the US and Europe. Dr. Nathaniel Raskin later became Department Head for Social and Behavioral Sciences, and in his 2004 book he describes his inauguration in 1978 as President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists. 

      My primary relationship with Nat was with a one semester course in which he taught non-directive counseling, my first semester in medical school (clinical psychology). His 2004 book is exactly about that course and work, and indeed I was unbelievably delighted as Dr. Carl Roger's work was my favorite of all the leading psychologists (e.g., R. D. Laing, Sigmund Freud, Gordon Allport, Carl Jung, Kurt Lewin, B.F. Skinner, Alfred Adler) taught at Cornell University, Liberal Arts Program. Non-directive (client-centered) clinical counseling  was "right on" with Dr. Roger's unconditional positive regard, and scientifically-based therapy, clearly superior as an approach for healing and professional helping in the office and clinical settings in which clinical psychologists often work. Later, I would transfer my course credits, together with others, to my Maxwell MPA degree, predating the now joint MPH-MPA degree programs. 

        Nat's book, which is highly referenced to his and Roger's work for decades, includes his "landmark study of six differing therapeutic orientations" which Dr. Roger's believed deserved much more attention. Nat himself took courses from Rogers his first year in Chicago, with his term paper appearing in the Journal of Consulting Psychology on non-directive attitudes versus the concentation on non-directive techniques.  He also describes congruence, as one of the three necessary and sufficient conditions for success in the psychotherapeutic process. The book is a must read for proteges of Rogerian psychotherapy, and I would argue for all community psychologists offering services to the public. Subsequent to Cornell University, my thesis was on the development of generic, community approaches such as family support.

     My career, of course took another path in which I was involved in the development of the first community programs in mental health, first in New York State in the 1970s.  Later, I would move on to the development of programs in related fields (e.g., intellectual disabilities, traumatic brain injury) and in other sectors and roles (e.g., Executive, Education, Research, Development) and Non-Profit, Governmental, and the Corporate and Business Sectors in the US and internationally. My path, of course, would cross many other leaders and contributors, but always, Rogerian and non-directive counseling approaches, would be core with "existential psychology" undergirding the world gates. All counseling, other than group, dyad or family therapies, tend to be person-centered approaches which is one of the reasons I enjoy clinical work.

     I was lucky to meet with Nat while I was in Chicago for the International Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, where I was chairing a new Committee on Housing (with Elaine Ostroff, who later edited a world book on universal design), and a panel on our national federal center on community living research and developments in the US. He also would write to me when Carl became ill and had a visual impairment before he passed, with Nat having worked with the American Foundation for the Blind earlier in his career in New York City. Carl and Nat claimed each other as friends, and I claimed myself as honored to have met Nat!  In 1985, while I joined Syracuse University and the federal Rehabilitation Research and Training Center's network, Nat was teaching courses on clinical interviewing and empathy, and visiting South Africa as part of an international  team; Carl Rogers, on the team, was 83 years old!

     This month, now 2017, I read Nat Raskin's The first 50 years and the next 10 in which he appraised the person-centered approach; it was published in the Person-Centered Review, 5(4): 364-372 in November 1990.  It was the period to which we contributed decades to the dominance of "positivistic" approaches, which at Syracuse University, unwittingly included Bogdan's and Taylor's positivistic evaluation research and social acceptance theories published as part of the work of the national Center on which I served as Deputy Director. Nat cites the Roger's leading book, On becoming a person (1961) which introduced me to him at Cornell undergraduate days, and indicates that his publications with Carl date way back to 1949 on coordinated research in psychotherapy! The next generation is now publishing about Nat and Carl, and I find the interweaving of the generations to be both right and intriguing.

     We will miss our colleagues and leaders as we move to the next decades, but positivism is not for just a few decades, but a mainstay to the future for a good planet (i.e., Sustainable Development Goals) and good lives in the "galaxies" (the Star Trek generations). Nat and I respectively in our distinct careers, approved a range of theories (e.g., personality development) and thus, community and university practices in the US. However, in my conversations with Nat, both of us are in our own practices, at the clinical effectiveness of Rogerian therapy and similar foundational sciences to support good personal and societal outcomes. Today,"anti-behaviorism" becomes critical to "purge" the growth in "bad" (e.g., nuclear warfare, growing terrorism and police interventions),  societal and personal outcomes that can and do occur in the US and world. Looking forward to reading the transcripts and the further work conducted, published and released!! 

References
Bogdan, R. & Taylor, S.J (1987). Toward a sociology of acceptance: The other side of the study of deviance. Social Policy, 18: 34-39. 

Bogdan, R. & Taylor, S. (1990). Looking at the bright side: A positive approach to qualitative policy and evaluation research. Qualitative Sociology, 13: 183-192. 

Hall, C.S. & Lindzey, G. (1957, 1970). Theories of personality. NY, NY and London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Racino, J. (1979). Education of supervisors and managers in community programs in Central New York and New York State.  Syracuse, NY: Transitional Living Services of Onondaga County, CNY Training Coalition, and NYSACRA.

Racino, J. (1986). Panel presentation on community living research and development. Chicago, IL: International Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps (TASH). 

Racino, J. & Ostroff, E. (1990). Housing that people want and control. TASH-International. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation.  

Racino, J. (2014). Public administration and disability: Community services administration in the US. NY, NY and London: CRC Press.

Raskin, N. J.  (1985, February 12). Letter to Julie Ann Racino, Syracuse, NY. Chicago, IL: Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 

Raskin, N.J. (1990). The first 50 years and the next 10. Person-Centered Review, 5(4): 364-372. 

Raskin, N.J. (2004). Contributions to client-centered therapy and the person-centered approach. Ross-on-the-Wye: PCCS Books. 

Rogers, C.R. (1961).  On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 

Rogers, C.R. (2004).  A personal message from Carl Rogers. In N.J. Raskin, Conbtributions to client-centered therapy and the person-centered approach (pp. v-vi). Ross-on-the-Wye, Herefordshire, UK: PCCS Books. 

Rogers, C.R., Raskin, N.J., et al. (1949). A coordinated research in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 13: 149-220.

      

Thursday, September 7, 2017

AARP's PROFILES OF LONG TERM SERVICES AND SUPPORTS

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR RETIRED PERSON'S 
PROFILES OF LONG TERM SERVICES AND SUPPORTS
9th Edition, 2012


     In 2012, I was absolutely delighted to obtain a copy of the AARP's Profiles of Long Term Services and Supports (LTSS) with Older Americans represented by this illustrious voluntary sector, non-profit organization in areas from US legislation to health care financing. Are you invited to join AARP as an Older American? Yes you are!

     In its American Public Policy Institute, AARP concluded:
* 4  Many older Americans live below 250 percent of the poverty line, and are likely to qualify for need-based long-term services and supports and other publicly funded services.
* 5  The bulk of Medicaid long term services and support dollars still go to nursing facilities rather than home and community-based services.
* 2  The older population is racially and ethnically diverse and is projected to become even more diverse as our multicultural society grows.

     Now, what did this author find as critically, relevant statistics "for use with legislative, executive and financing" bodies? 
* AARP states that "In 2010, one out of every five people 65+ was nonwhite or Hispanic, a percentage that is increasing and will continue to do so in the future. By 2060, it is projected that 46% of the age 65+ population will be people of color." The reasons for such demographic changes, according to Julie Ann Racino of the American Society for Public Administration, typically are differential birth rates among the populations and immigration policies, and that these changes vary by region and migration patterns in the USA.

* Very popular home health services are reported as part of LTSS by states in the Nation
(e.g., Alabama, Colorado, Maine, Mississippi), together with "similar workers" as personal and home care aides, assisted living and residential care units and facilities, health maintenance task delegation, and congregate and home delivered meals. These services and workers are called home and community-based resources. In contrast, nursing facilities (beds, facilities, occupancies) are reported with quality and oversight on physical restraints, residents with dementia, high risk and low care need residents with ombudsman programs.

* Long Term Services and Supports are still Long Term Care Financing, similar to the Public Policy Institute hosted by President Obama. In particular, the state-by-state analyses indicate a marked increase in Medicaid LTSS spending through MR/DD waivers (plus 54%) between 2004-2009 with growth in personal care services and other HCBS services (67%), nursing facilities (12% growth), HCBS 1915 waivers (77%), and intermediate care facilities for mental retardation (8%); aged and disabled waivers varied by state (e.g., plus 58% in Alabama; 89% increase in Idaho; 1,237% in Tennessee), including decreases (minus 5%, Maine; minus 56%, New York). The charts indicate in intellectual disabilities either a transfer of Medicaid packages to this reporting for older Americans, or indeed a marked new increase in funds toward this population group (may or may not include dementia; marked increases over age 85).

      This author recommends use of this document to review your own state (e.g., exorbitant institutional costs), to compare to others (why not in our state?), to increase "service typologies" for homes and communities (e.g., we like more hours available in home health instead of large nursing facilities), to obtain information on family caregiving and its economic costs (AARP at state legislatures for funds for family caregiving), and information on "living arrangements" including care for grandchildren and those over age 75 who may live alone. On the latter, few of us are truly alone, though increasingly families may have relocated out-of-state, and plans may involve neighborhoods or governments of "birthplaces" (e.g., institutions, had "place of origin"). In particular, the tables indicate a need for awareness on "cognitive difficulty" and "self care difficulty" which may be reasons a home health aide, a personal care aide or home care may be contacted or requested post-age 65 versus adult ages (18-64). The US has new disability and aging coordinators which are to be there to assist in decisions and resources.

        For those who wonder about the "formal and informal support" studies, the findings were that "instrumental support" is provided by neighbors and friends (e.g., coffee or lunch; "check in"; "voluntary telephone calls"), and broadly speaking, "more difficulty caregiving" (e.g., bathing, "toileting") does indeed "fall" to families (e.g., of birth), spouses (yes, gay marriages, too) and newly created families (e.g., children). Independent living has long supported a system of independence from families in living in homes and communities, and have advocated for the aides (e.g., see, also, US Direct Support Workforce, 2014, e.g., "psychiatric aides", "home aides"), income, decision making and supports to do so. The report also describes Long Term Care Insurance which is a new marketplace product.

      Thank you to the authors of the AARP report on Long Term Services and Supports, Ari Houser, Wendy-Fox-Gage and Kathleen Ujvari. AARP is on the web at www.aarp.org and has state offices throughout the US (e.g., Oklahoma, South Dakota, South Carolina, Rhode Island). The Public Policy Institute report was from 601 E. Street, NW., Washington, DC 20049.

By Julie Ann Racino, September 7, 2017    

Saturday, May 13, 2017

A WORD ON INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

A Word on Inclusive Education in the 21st Century

by Julie Ann Racino   May 2017

    In 2014, special education published a new two volume text (The SAGE Handbook of Special Education, by Florian) with inclusive education in nation-states (e.g., China, India, Japan, US, Germany, Singapore, England, Scotland, Soviet Union, Argentina, Kenya, Sweden) through the academic publishing company, SAGE. The texts complement the book, Inclusive Education Across Cultures (Alur & Timmons, 2009), reviewed in 2016 on amazon.com and myriad texts describing schools and transition to adulthood (e.g., post secondary education, employment) (e.g., Rusch, et al, 1992, Wikipedia, 2009/2012). 

    This author, who recently released a book in public administration and public affairs (Racino, 2015), was delighted to find Dean Douglas Biklen of School of Education, Syracuse University discussing the new disability studies in America, and then 1990s international student Dr. Maya Kaylanpur (in Alur) highlighting the Western concept of inclusion in India. In addition, Dr. Martha Thurlow, of the University of Minnesota, discussed instructional assessments and accomodations (e.g., speech to text, student calculators, extended time) in the 21st Century. These accomodations are similar to those recommended in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (core disability rights law, US) at Disability Services Offices on college campuses. 


Core US Laws and Programs

     Long awaited in some circles was Chapter 36 (Fowler, Ostrosky & Yates, 2014) which highlights Early Intervention Programs under US federal law PL 99-457, the US National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, individual family service plans (e.g., India, Australia, Portugal, United Kingdom), individualized education curricula -IEPs (e.g., Africa), Early Childhood Special Education Programs (e.g., Egypt), and "Responses to Intervention" from school age toward preschool ages. Syracuse University professionals included Diane Aptner and Claudia Stockley with Carol Berrigan funded the New York State Department of Health, and Individual Family Service Plans and modernized Individualized Education Plans (e.g., Sue Lehr, James Knoll, Steven J. Taylor, John O'Brien) through the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration. 

    Inclusive Education has roots in "integrated education", in "mainstreaming", and in early efforts to promote better teaching and learning during the early years. Leading Syracuse faculty from the 1970s and 1980s (e.g., Dr. Carol Berrigan, Dr. Steven J. Taylor) began a reversal of the institutional model, choosing education and schooling for children with disabilities, in conjunction with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974, often known today as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and IDEIA (PL 108-446). Of course, early models of integration still abound from the resource room concept (a base site) in the mainstreaming schools, and "reverse integration" such as Jowonio School in Syracuse (Ellen Barnes, Human Policy Press author), where great private school teaching attracted both those "with and without disabilities". 


Core World Initiatives in Education

     The new textbook highlights key multi-decade events framing worldwide education initiatives, advocacy and public policy. In particular, 155 countries were represented at the 1990 World Conference on Education for All in Jontien, Thailand which was followed by the Salamanca Statement on Inclusive Schooling (1994), and in 2000 by the World Education Framework developed in Dakar (e.g., Pumpian & Devecchi, 2014). These complement the work of the United Nations  reflected in the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006), the UN Equalization of Opportunities for Disabled Persons (1993), the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), and the original UN Declaration on Human Rights (1948), among others. Many of us, of course, recall the UN World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons back in 1982!

      In 2017, the world also has the benefit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), subsequent to the United Nation's Millenium Development Goals, including the right of girls to education* (Education by All for 2015) and gender equality principles and goals. These goals extend to areas as diverse as the environment (above and below the water), political participation (e.g., elections and leadership), work and economic security, clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, climate action, quality education, peace-justice-strong institutions, reduced inequalities, industry, innovation and infrastructure, and sustainable cities and communities (See, Blogspot/Community and Policy Studies, 2016).  


Special Education and Inclusive Education

Countries Around the World Reported Integration as Most Important in Their Policies and Practices (UNESCO, 1996)

           Both special and inclusive education are the "same education field" representing different concepts and philosophies of educating children with "special education needs" (SEN). While "community integrationists" (See, wikipedia) utilize a base norm of "regular schools", special educators often begin with a norm of their subfield (e.g., designated children to be served by diagnostic categories) and extend "their thinking" to the school systems and community programs.  Many excellent ideas on friendships among childhood peers, on inspiration in teaching and learning, and on supporting children and their families (e.g., Zana Lutfiyya, Jeff Strully, Betsy Edinger) are credited to these inclusive education efforts. This book (Florian, 2014) reports approximately half of the designated children are served in regular education settings in the US. 

      The contemporary issues in special education and inclusive education involve the concept of equity, as in who benefits (Kosleski, Artilles, & Waitoller, 2014), differences between Brofenbrenner's Head Start and early childhood programs, the roles of special schools in nation-states, education of teachers in special education needs, validation of culturally and linguistically responsive special education models of service delivery, basic laws (e.g., National Education Policies, India) and positive promotion of people with disabilities, global commitments, capability approaches to children with special education needs, and assurance that diverse needs of children (e.g., hearing, vision, learning) are met, including in general education settings. In addition, relationships with world partners, such as Disabled People International in over 100 countries (Mukhopadhyay, 2009) are critical in the challenges of the coming decades. 


References

Alur, M. & Timmons, V. (2009). Inclusive Education Across Cultures: Crossing Boundaries, Sharing Ideas. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. 
-Kaylanpur, M. (2009). Cultural variations on the construct of self advocacy in the Indian context. (pp. 331-341). 
-Mukhopadhyay, S. (2009). Rethinking inclusive education: Action points for communities. 
(pp. 68-82). 

Florian, L. (2014). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education, Volumes 1&2. Los Angeles, CA: sage. 
- Biklen, D., Orsati, F. & Bacon, J. (2014). A disability studies frame for research approaches in special education. (pp. 351-368). 
- DeVecchi, C. (2014). Glossary, Quotation by Ian Pumpian. (p. 945).
- Fowler, J., Ostrosky, M. & Yates, T. (2014). Teaching and learning in the early years. (pp. 613-632).

- Kozleski, E., Artiles, A., & Waitoller, F.  (2014). Equity in inclusive education: A cultural historical comparative perspective. (pp. 231-251).
-Thurlow, M. (2014). Instructional and assessment accomodations in the 21st century. (pp. 597-612).  

Racino, J. (2015). Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. London and NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor. 

Racino, J. (2016, September 3). Review of Inclusive Education Across Cultures: Crossing Boundaries, Sharing Ideas by Mithu Alur. New Delhi, India.  http://www.amazon.com product reviews. 

Rusch, F., DeStefano, L., Chadsey-Rusch, J., Phelps, L.A., & Szymanski, E. (1992). Transition from Youth to Adult Life: Models, Linkages and Policy. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co. 

United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. UN Sustainable Development Summit 2015.  NY, NY: Author. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/

Wikipedia. (2009/2012). Supported Employment. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supported_employment

Wikipedia. (2012/2014). Community Integration.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community_integration

For those readers who wish to know the history before inclusive education, early frameworks on Quality Education for All (e.g., Lipsky & Gartner, 1989) and Schooling Without Labels (Biklen, 1992) were popular in that period as academic leadership. However, the true predecessors of "disability strands" were called integrated early education programs (Center on Human Policy, 1986) and integrated school programs for the students with "severe disabilities" ( Center on Human Policy, 1986). 

Our doctoral student James Knoll who worked on the Community Integration Project (Taylor, Racino & Knoll) at Syracuse University, also cited with Luanna Meyer, a "severe disabilities" professor, Doug Biklen's new Achieving the Complete School (1985), and of course, Doug (just retired) later became Dean of the entire School of Education. 

That period of time in America was the real struggle on "IQ" and whether a person should be treated by their mental or chronological age (adults often were treated as young children). New positions and theories arose from the "criterion of ultimate functioning" (Lou Brown from Madison "severe disabilities" and the Nietupskis in 1976!), to chronologically age appropriate programs and functional curriculum (also Lou Brown, Ian Pumpian, Alison Ford) and to our "law class of professionals" enforcing provisions of the 1970s "education and disability" PL 94-142 and Section 504 (Gilhool & Stutman, 1978). 

The bibliographies for the project, available to the public and professionals, ranged from integrated preschools, to mainstreaming models and comparisons of preschool for "handicapped and non-handicapped children".  The extensive peer-reviewed academic articles began in the 1970s with integration of "hearing impaired and "young deaf children", and the debate on "integration and segregation" has continued to this day. However, the reviews were not conducted with (but supportive of) Claudia Stockley, Nan Carle, Carol Berrigan, and Dianne Apter who are the actual designated government to university employees responsible in those areas. In particular, Ann Turnbull, just retiring from the Beach Center on Families in Kansas, is supporting preschool mainstreaming, Head Start, Division of Early Childhood, and Pediatric Psychology! 

Janet Duncan's materials packet was on integrated education and has Carol Berrigan's article on All Students Belong in the Classroom: Johnson City Central Schools, Johnson City, New York and the critical, Schooling and Disability that Doug Biklen published with Dianne Ferguson and Allison Ford, his faculty at Syracuse at the time of their transition to permanent university positions. Marcia Forest, a Canadian favorite at school integration, and the Arc of Minnesota were actively supporting school integration, and the movement was throughout the US. Cooperative learning, reminiscent of Montessori practices, comes in as a separate initiative in education, or part of how good teachers instill love of learning in group settings.  

James Knoll, being ambitious to achieve his later university Chair position, and national research articles, also authored with Luanna Meyer from the Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Principles and Practices for School Integration of Students with Severe Disabilities: An Overview of the Literature which appeared in Managerial Models of Mainstreaming from Aspen Publishers (Publishing projects of Peter Knobloch). Luanna Meyer later worked in New York with the school systems here ("behavioral"as all was located in the last review for my new book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US -Racino, 2014). James did cite Steve Taylor's school integration article, From segregation to integration in the Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps (1982) which he finished before I arrived at Syracuse University.

A Few Community Integration Wishes: Why? Because it is a Blog!
James Knoll applied for our federal research center positions in US states (US Education funded involving non-profits, state governments and institutional and community populations, and in review at health and human services) working at Wayne State University (Michigan center) with Michael Peterson. 

During that time, I was off in 35 plus states onsite on the federal Community Integration (wikipedia), and then, funded twice with Taylor (recently deceased, 2014), for new national Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers on Community Integration for 10 years (Bonnie Shoultz and Hank Bersani arrived about here). Later came the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center Networks in the US (e.g., Racino with Lakin in DC; Racino with Heumann in CA -actually designated by Taylor), and much later the Disability Studies Programs in Education (e.g., Taylor at Syracuse; Brown in Hawaii; Bates in New York City).

Best wishes to James and Luanna as they reach their retirements gates in this period of time, Luanna back in her native Hawaii and James from the state of Kentucky higher education system; they are joining Douglas Biklen, Carol Berrigan and Robert Bogdan in retirement, and I might add, still not locating Doug's wife and Bob's research methods coauthor, Dr. Sari Biklen, Cultural Foundations of Education at Syracuse University (women in education annuals, US). 

However, Michael Guralnick was highly cited in early intervention, and will be found at these academic services, today, and of course, I did meet Jeff Strully in Kentucky back in 1985 (friendships and our children -family first- or non-profit NGOs and the state governments), and he has been a CEO in three states!  The Stainbacks "of course" from Iowa graciously assisted through the years at the research and schools for all in the US, as did Charles Peck with the Community Participation Book Reviews for the Series. 

And Gaylord-Ross has already passed in the public school integration sets with Robert York newly retiring, and Allison Ford and Syracuse's Linda Davern. In case anyone wonders, Wolf Wolfensberger (now deceased) did in the 1970s support very young integration of children, and forms of family support (not even named as such then), but to my knowledge taught ("Residential Services" -manual upstairs was very, very good) but did not publish in those areas in refereed journals (as normalization, social role valorization). He also did not teach clinical psychology (I later was a graduate student in this field as a medical student in Chicago, and had undergraduate work at Cornell before meeting him) which was his new educational background for the school systems. 

Greetings also to Sue Lehr (with husband Bob, and son Ben) of Tully, New York, who was writing on self advocacy with Steve Taylor in the extensive citations and is known with Peter Knoblock for College for Living (we started it new back in the 1970s) at Onondaga Community College. Stan Searl was over at Union College in New York, and was also a friend of Steve Taylors. For the parents at after school programs, comes in about Davern and Ford, at the community agencies, and Jennifer York was in with Terri Vandercook from Minnesota (See, also Colleen Weick, State DD Council and Partners in Policymaking). Dianne Ferguson (site visit to Oregon, community residences) and Phil Ferguson are "still together" and out West, and Phil was found at historical institutional writings. Janet Duncan was at SUNY-Cortland and education and disability departmental in the late 2000s.

Just added in Ann and Rud Turnbull's special education textbook from 1995 with the concepts of inclusion, zero reject, cooperative teaching, natural proportions, and special education supports with in general education. Zero reject came from the community sector and led to the concepts of community services for all in the US. Ann and Rud also highlight key concepts from cultural competence (perennial), parent-to-parent, and the importance of children's friend-ships. Best wishes in their retirements!!

Arc of Minnesota. (1988). Integrated education. FOCUS, Winter, 4-5.

Berrigan, C. (1989, November). All students belong in the classroom: Johnson City Central Schools, Johnson City, New York. TASH Newsletter, 6-7.  

Biklen, D. (1985). Achieving the Complete School: Strategies for Effective Mainstreaming. NY, NY: Teachers College Press. 

Biklen, D. (1992). Schooling Without Labels: Parents, Educators and Inclusive Education.  Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 

Biklen, D., Ferguson, D. & Ford, A. (1989). Schooling and Disability. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 

Bogdan, R. (1983). "Does Mainstreaming Work?" is a silly quesiton. Phi Delta Kappan, 64: 427-428. 

Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1982). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 

Brown, L., Ford, A., Nisbet, J., Sweet, M., Donnellan, A., & Gruenwald, L. (1983). Opportunities available when severely handicapped students attend chronological age appropriate regular schools. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 
8(1): 16-24. 

Brown, L., Nietupski, J., & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (1976). Criterion of ultimate functioning. In: M. A. Thomas, Hey, Don't Forget About Me! (pp. 2-15). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

Center on Human Policy. (1986, March). Materials on Integrated Early Education Programs for Children with Severe Disabilities. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Community Integration Project.

Center on Human Policy. (1986). Materials on Integrated School Programs for Students with Severe Disabilities. (Bibliography, James Knoll). Syracuse, NY: Community Integration Prject, Center on Human Policy.

Duncan, J. (1990, May). Materials on Integrated Education. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation and Research and Training Center on Community Integration. 

Ford, A. & Davern, L. (1989). Moving forward with school integration: Strategies for involving students with severe handicaps in life of the school. In: R. Gaylord-Ross, Integration Strategies for Persons with Handicaps. (pp. 11-31). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Ford, A., Foster, S.B., Searl, S.J., &Taylor, S.J. (1984). The Brown School Model Project: A Description. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy. 

Forest, M. (1984). Education/Integration: A Collection of Readings on the Integration of Children with Mental Handicaps into Regular School Systems. Downsview, Ontario: The G. Allan Roeher Institute. 

Gaylord-Ross, R. & Peck, C.A. (1985). Integration efforts for students with severe mental retardation. In: D. Bricker, & J. Filler (Eds.), Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice. (pp. 185-207).  Reston, MD: Divison on Mental Retardation, Council for Exceptional Chldren.

Gilhool, T. & Stutman, E. (1978). Integration of severely handicapped students: Toward criteria for implementing and enforcing the integration imperative of PL 94-142 and Section 504. In LRE: Developing Criteria for Evaluation of the Least Restrictive Environment Provision. Washington, DC: US Office of Education, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. 

Guralnick, M.J. (1976). The value of integrating handicapped and non-handicapped preschool chldren. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46: 236-245. 

Guralnick, M. (1980). Social interactions among preschool children. Exceptional Children, 46: 248-253. 

Hamre-Nietupski, S., Nietupski, J., Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1984). Preparing school systems for longitudinal integration efforts. In: N. Certo, N. Haring, & R. York, Public School Integration of Severely Handicapped Students: Rational Issues and Progressive Alternatives. (pp. 104-141). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Knoll, J. & Meyer, L. (1985). Principles and practices for school integration of students with severe disabilties: An overview of the literature. In: M. Berres & P. Knoblock, Managerial Models of Mainstreaming. Rockville, MD: Aspen. 

Lehr, S. & Taylor, S.J. (1986). Preparing for Life: A Manual for Parents on the Least Restrictive Environment. Boston, MA: Technical Assistance for Parent Programs, Federation of Children with Special Needs.

Lipsky, D. & Gartner, A. (1989). Beyond Separate Education: Quality Education for All. (pp. 255-290). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Meyer, L.H. & Kishi, G.S. (1985). School integration strategies. In: K.C. Lakin & R.H. Bruininks, Strategies for Achieving the Community Integration for Developmentally Disabled Citizens. (pp. 231-252). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.  

Racino, J. (1999). Youth and community life: Perspectives of adults with disabilities on personal assistance services. Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All.  (pp. 207-224). NY, NY and London: The Haworth Press. 

Racino, J. (1999). The role of family case study research in family policy: Local agency delivery systems. In: Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. (pp. 235-261). Binghamton, NY and London, UK: Haworth Press. 

Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1984). A rationale for the merger of special and regualr education. Exceptional Children, 51: 102-111. 

Strully, J. & Strully, C. (1985). Friendship and our children. Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10: 224-227. 

Taylor, S. J. (1982). From segregation to integration: Strategies for integrating severely handicapped students in normal school and community settings. Journal of the Association of the Severely Handicapped, 7(3): 42-49. 

Taylor, S.J., Biklen, D., Lehr, S., & Searl, S.J. (1987). Purposeful Integration..Inherently Equal. Boston, MA: Technical Assistance for Parent Programs (TAPP), Federation for Children with Special Needs.

Turnbull, A.P. (1982). Preschool mainstreaming a policy and implementing analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 4(3): 281-291.  

Turnbull, A.P. & Blacher-Dixon, J. (1979). Mainstreaming handicapped children in Region IV Head Start. In: A. R. Sanford & H. C. Henley, The 1979 Report of Services to the Handicapped Region IV Head Start. Chapel, NC: Training-Outreach Project. 

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, H.R., Shank, M., & Leal, D. (1995). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools. Englewood, NJ: Englewood Cliffs.

Turnbull, A.P. & Winton, P. J. (1983). A comparison of specialized and mainstreamed preschools from the perspectives of parents of handicapped children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8(1): 57-71.  

Voeltz, L.M (1980). Children's attitudes toward handicapped peers. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88: 630-637.  

Voetltz, L.M. (1982). Effects of structured interaction with severely handicapped peers on children's attitudes. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86: 380-390.

Voeltz, L.M. (1984). Program and curriculum innovations to prepare children for integration. In: N. Certo, N. Haring, & R. York, Public School Integration of Severely Handicapped Students: Rational Issues and Progressive Alternatives. (pp. 155-183). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

York, J., Vandercook, T., & MacDonald, C. (1989). Feedback from Educators and Classmates about Inclusion in Middle School. Minneapolis, MN: Universityof Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. 

York, J., Vandercook, T., MacDonald, C. & Wolff, S. (1989). Strategies for Full Inclusion. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. 


   
     

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

American Society for Public Administration: Annual Conference 2017 in Atlanta, Georgia

The 2017 Annual American Society for Public Administration Conference,  Saluting the Public Service, was held in Atlanta,Georgia at the Sheraton Downtown Hotel Conference Center from March 17-22, 2017. The Welcome Letter was from Nathan Deal, Governor of the State of Georgia, who applauded members for their dedicated service and wishes for a successful and enjoyable conference.

The Elliot Richardson Lecture was delivered effectively by former Governor L. Douglas Wilder of the state of Virginia, the first African American to be elected Governor in the US. According to the ASPA, his critically acclaimed memoir is Son of Virginia: A Life in America's Political Arena and I was pleased to extend greetings from New York (current Governor Andrew Cuomo, son of Matilda and Mario Cuomo). 

ASPA's current Presidencies have switched to the domain of women with immediate Past- President Maria P. Aristigueta, current President Susan T. Gooden, and newly elected President Janice La Chance with Executive Director William P. Shields, Jr.  In 2015, Julie Ann Racino attended the Leadership Meeting of ASPA and met both Maria Aristigueta and Susan Gooden, and in 2016 attended the Public Administration and Law dinner featuring Susan Gooden's new book on social equity.

Instead of a regional chapter membership, Julie Ann Racino is an International Chapter member of the American Society for Public Administration in part due to international consultations. The Fred Riggs International Symposium participants were given information on International Agendas in the Field of Disability (E.g., UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, International Right to Health) in 2016.  These included:

United States
US Direct Professional Support Workforce and the US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare

US Patient and Affordable Care Act and the US Health Care Exchanges

US National Independent Living, Disability and Rehabilitation Research, US Department of Health and Human Services

US Presidential Campaign, Criminal Justice Reform, Universal Health Care, and International Relations

US Health Reform and Individual, Family and Community Health vs. Behavioral Health Care (e.g., Independent Living)

International
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child (and Family Policies Around the World)

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

World Health Organization Mental Health Programme

International Disability Rights Monitor

Health and Human Services in the International Environment: Rehabilitation Centers and Regional Development, Water, Sanitation, and Vaccinations (Environment)

Migrants, Immigrants and Refugee Programs

Sustainability, Inclusion and Equity in Cities of the World

In 2017, the Fred Riggs International Symposium (one of two held on Friday, March 17, 2017) included presentations on Governance and Community Development, Challenges to the Public Sector: Ethics, Integrity and Corruption, Redefining the Role of Public Service Under Pro-Market Reforms in Asia, Comparing Public Service in Africa, Role of National and International Nonprofit Organizations in Governance, and Performance, Strategic Management, and Policy in Public Organizations. The International Hosts were Veronica Junjan of the University of Twente, Netherlands and Gedeon Mudacumara of Cheney University of Pennsylvania, both of whom have been in contact in 2016-2017 to the International Chapter Membership of American Society for Public Administration. 

The Deli S. Wright  Symposium was held concurrently and was sponsored by the Intergovernmental Administration and Management Section of ASPA. I attended the wrapup by Eric Zeemering and Mark Wright where Dovie Dowson, of Public Administration and the Law, subsequently discussed the next agenda for Denver, Colorado in 2018. This Symposium featured the Local and Government Review (also a journal), Collaborative Public Management moderated by Cynthia Bolling, and an Intergovernmental Management: European Perspective. Simultaneously, a workshop was held on Transportation in the 21st Century, a Labor Relations Workshop and on on Women in Leadership Roles. 

More information will be made available on the Saturday and Sunday events, the meetings of the Formation Section on Public Administration and Disability, and the presentation titled:
Expanding Theories in Disability and Community: From Community Integration to Community Inclusion, Equity and Sustainability in the Age of Terrorism. Moderator and Presenters for the latter were listed as: Allan Bergman, Julie Ann Racino, Stephen Rolandi, and Andrea Huston. The presentation was approved as Public Administration Theories for the Annual Conference and a paper for submission in 2017-2018 will be finalized. For 2018 in Denver, Colorado, Gedeon Mudacumara welcomes an international panel for the Fred Riggs Symposium event. 

We also would like to thank the Carter Center and Museum for the welcome reception event on Saturday evening and museum tour, and for the receptions at the Sheraton, including the new Korean Institute on Public Administration. 

Submitted by Julie Ann Racino, Member of the International Chapter of American Society for Public Administration, and Formation, Co-Chair of the Public Administration and Disability, 2016-2017