Saturday, May 13, 2017


A Word on Inclusive Education in the 21st Century

by Julie Ann Racino   May 2017

    In 2014, special education published a new two volume text (The SAGE Handbook of Special Education, by Florian) with inclusive education in nation-states (e.g., China, India, Japan, US, Germany, Singapore, England, Scotland, Soviet Union, Argentina, Kenya, Sweden) through the academic publishing company, SAGE. The texts complement the book, Inclusive Education Across Cultures (Alur & Timmons, 2009), reviewed in 2016 on and myriad texts describing schools and transition to adulthood (e.g., post secondary education, employment) (e.g., Rusch, et al, 1992, Wikipedia, 2009/2012). 

    This author, who recently released a book in public administration and public affairs (Racino, 2015), was delighted to find Dean Douglas Biklen of School of Education, Syracuse University discussing the new disability studies in America, and then 1990s international student Dr. Maya Kaylanpur (in Alur) highlighting the Western concept of inclusion in India. In addition, Dr. Martha Thurlow, of the University of Minnesota, discussed instructional assessments and accomodations (e.g., speech to text, student calculators, extended time) in the 21st Century. These accomodations are similar to those recommended in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (core disability rights law, US) at Disability Services Offices on college campuses. 

Core US Laws and Programs

     Long awaited in some circles was Chapter 36 (Fowler, Ostrosky & Yates, 2014) which highlights Early Intervention Programs under US federal law PL 99-457, the US National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, individual family service plans (e.g., India, Australia, Portugal, United Kingdom), individualized education curricula -IEPs (e.g., Africa), Early Childhood Special Education Programs (e.g., Egypt), and "Responses to Intervention" from school age toward preschool ages. Syracuse University professionals included Diane Aptner and Claudia Stockley with Carol Berrigan funded the New York State Department of Health, and Individual Family Service Plans and modernized Individualized Education Plans (e.g., Sue Lehr, James Knoll, Steven J. Taylor, John O'Brien) through the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration. 

    Inclusive Education has roots in "integrated education", in "mainstreaming", and in early efforts to promote better teaching and learning during the early years. Leading Syracuse faculty from the 1970s and 1980s (e.g., Dr. Carol Berrigan, Dr. Steven J. Taylor) began a reversal of the institutional model, choosing education and schooling for children with disabilities, in conjunction with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1974, often known today as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and IDEIA (PL 108-446). Of course, early models of integration still abound from the resource room concept (a base site) in the mainstreaming schools, and "reverse integration" such as Jowonio School in Syracuse (Ellen Barnes, Human Policy Press author), where great private school teaching attracted both those "with and without disabilities". 

Core World Initiatives in Education

     The new textbook highlights key multi-decade events framing worldwide education initiatives, advocacy and public policy. In particular, 155 countries were represented at the 1990 World Conference on Education for All in Jontien, Thailand which was followed by the Salamanca Statement on Inclusive Schooling (1994), and in 2000 by the World Education Framework developed in Dakar (e.g., Pumpian & Devecchi, 2014). These complement the work of the United Nations  reflected in the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006), the UN Equalization of Opportunities for Disabled Persons (1993), the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), and the original UN Declaration on Human Rights (1948), among others. Many of us, of course, recall the UN World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons back in 1982!

      In 2017, the world also has the benefit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), subsequent to the United Nation's Millenium Development Goals, including the right of girls to education* (Education by All for 2015) and gender equality principles and goals. These goals extend to areas as diverse as the environment (above and below the water), political participation (e.g., elections and leadership), work and economic security, clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, climate action, quality education, peace-justice-strong institutions, reduced inequalities, industry, innovation and infrastructure, and sustainable cities and communities (See, Blogspot/Community and Policy Studies, 2016).  

Special Education and Inclusive Education

Countries Around the World Reported Integration as Most Important in Their Policies and Practices (UNESCO, 1996)

           Both special and inclusive education are the "same education field" representing different concepts and philosophies of educating children with "special education needs" (SEN). While "community integrationists" (See, wikipedia) utilize a base norm of "regular schools", special educators often begin with a norm of their subfield (e.g., designated children to be served by diagnostic categories) and extend "their thinking" to the school systems and community programs.  Many excellent ideas on friendships among childhood peers, on inspiration in teaching and learning, and on supporting children and their families (e.g., Zana Lutfiyya, Jeff Strully, Betsy Edinger) are credited to these inclusive education efforts. This book (Florian, 2014) reports approximately half of the designated children are served in regular education settings in the US. 

      The contemporary issues in special education and inclusive education involve the concept of equity, as in who benefits (Kosleski, Artilles, & Waitoller, 2014), differences between Brofenbrenner's Head Start and early childhood programs, the roles of special schools in nation-states, education of teachers in special education needs, validation of culturally and linguistically responsive special education models of service delivery, basic laws (e.g., National Education Policies, India) and positive promotion of people with disabilities, global commitments, capability approaches to children with special education needs, and assurance that diverse needs of children (e.g., hearing, vision, learning) are met, including in general education settings. In addition, relationships with world partners, such as Disabled People International in over 100 countries (Mukhopadhyay, 2009) are critical in the challenges of the coming decades. 


Alur, M. & Timmons, V. (2009). Inclusive Education Across Cultures: Crossing Boundaries, Sharing Ideas. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. 
-Kaylanpur, M. (2009). Cultural variations on the construct of self advocacy in the Indian context. (pp. 331-341). 
-Mukhopadhyay, S. (2009). Rethinking inclusive education: Action points for communities. 
(pp. 68-82). 

Florian, L. (2014). The SAGE Handbook of Special Education, Volumes 1&2. Los Angeles, CA: sage. 
- Biklen, D., Orsati, F. & Bacon, J. (2014). A disability studies frame for research approaches in special education. (pp. 351-368). 
- DeVecchi, C. (2014). Glossary, Quotation by Ian Pumpian. (p. 945).
- Fowler, J., Ostrosky, M. & Yates, T. (2014). Teaching and learning in the early years. (pp. 613-632).

- Kozleski, E., Artiles, A., & Waitoller, F.  (2014). Equity in inclusive education: A cultural historical comparative perspective. (pp. 231-251).
-Thurlow, M. (2014). Instructional and assessment accomodations in the 21st century. (pp. 597-612).  

Racino, J. (2015). Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. London and NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor. 

Racino, J. (2016, September 3). Review of Inclusive Education Across Cultures: Crossing Boundaries, Sharing Ideas by Mithu Alur. New Delhi, India. product reviews. 

Rusch, F., DeStefano, L., Chadsey-Rusch, J., Phelps, L.A., & Szymanski, E. (1992). Transition from Youth to Adult Life: Models, Linkages and Policy. Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing Co. 

United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. UN Sustainable Development Summit 2015.  NY, NY: Author.

Wikipedia. (2009/2012). Supported Employment.

Wikipedia. (2012/2014). Community Integration.

For those readers who wish to know the history before inclusive education, early frameworks on Quality Education for All (e.g., Lipsky & Gartner, 1989) and Schooling Without Labels (Biklen, 1992) were popular in that period as academic leadership. However, the true predecessors of "disability strands" were called integrated early education programs (Center on Human Policy, 1986) and integrated school programs for the students with "severe disabilities" ( Center on Human Policy, 1986). 

Our doctoral student James Knoll who worked on the Community Integration Project (Taylor, Racino & Knoll) at Syracuse University, also cited with Luanna Meyer, a "severe disabilities" professor, Doug Biklen's new Achieving the Complete School (1985), and of course, Doug (just retired) later became Dean of the entire School of Education. 

That period of time in America was the real struggle on "IQ" and whether a person should be treated by their mental or chronological age (adults often were treated as young children). New positions and theories arose from the "criterion of ultimate functioning" (Lou Brown from Madison "severe disabilities" and the Nietupskis in 1976!), to chronologically age appropriate programs and functional curriculum (also Lou Brown, Ian Pumpian, Alison Ford) and to our "law class of professionals" enforcing provisions of the 1970s "education and disability" PL 94-142 and Section 504 (Gilhool & Stutman, 1978). 

The bibliographies for the project, available to the public and professionals, ranged from integrated preschools, to mainstreaming models and comparisons of preschool for "handicapped and non-handicapped children".  The extensive peer-reviewed academic articles began in the 1970s with integration of "hearing impaired and "young deaf children", and the debate on "integration and segregation" has continued to this day. However, the reviews were not conducted with (but supportive of) Claudia Stockley, Nan Carle, Carol Berrigan, and Dianne Apter who are the actual designated government to university employees responsible in those areas. In particular, Ann Turnbull, just retiring from the Beach Center on Families in Kansas, is supporting preschool mainstreaming, Head Start, Division of Early Childhood, and Pediatric Psychology! 

Janet Duncan's materials packet was on integrated education and has Carol Berrigan's article on All Students Belong in the Classroom: Johnson City Central Schools, Johnson City, New York and the critical, Schooling and Disability that Doug Biklen published with Dianne Ferguson and Allison Ford, his faculty at Syracuse at the time of their transition to permanent university positions. Marcia Forest, a Canadian favorite at school integration, and the Arc of Minnesota were actively supporting school integration, and the movement was throughout the US. Cooperative learning, reminiscent of Montessori practices, comes in as a separate initiative in education, or part of how good teachers instill love of learning in group settings.  

James Knoll, being ambitious to achieve his later university Chair position, and national research articles, also authored with Luanna Meyer from the Division of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Principles and Practices for School Integration of Students with Severe Disabilities: An Overview of the Literature which appeared in Managerial Models of Mainstreaming from Aspen Publishers (Publishing projects of Peter Knobloch). Luanna Meyer later worked in New York with the school systems here ("behavioral"as all was located in the last review for my new book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US -Racino, 2014). James did cite Steve Taylor's school integration article, From segregation to integration in the Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps (1982) which he finished before I arrived at Syracuse University.

A Few Community Integration Wishes: Why? Because it is a Blog!
James Knoll applied for our federal research center positions in US states (US Education funded involving non-profits, state governments and institutional and community populations, and in review at health and human services) working at Wayne State University (Michigan center) with Michael Peterson. 

During that time, I was off in 35 plus states onsite on the federal Community Integration (wikipedia), and then, funded twice with Taylor (recently deceased, 2014), for new national Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers on Community Integration for 10 years (Bonnie Shoultz and Hank Bersani arrived about here). Later came the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center Networks in the US (e.g., Racino with Lakin in DC; Racino with Heumann in CA -actually designated by Taylor), and much later the Disability Studies Programs in Education (e.g., Taylor at Syracuse; Brown in Hawaii; Bates in New York City).

Best wishes to James and Luanna as they reach their retirements gates in this period of time, Luanna back in her native Hawaii and James from the state of Kentucky higher education system; they are joining Douglas Biklen, Carol Berrigan and Robert Bogdan in retirement, and I might add, still not locating Doug's wife and Bob's research methods coauthor, Dr. Sari Biklen, Cultural Foundations of Education at Syracuse University (women in education annuals, US). 

However, Michael Guralnick was highly cited in early intervention, and will be found at these academic services, today, and of course, I did meet Jeff Strully in Kentucky back in 1985 (friendships and our children -family first- or non-profit NGOs and the state governments), and he has been a CEO in three states!  The Stainbacks "of course" from Iowa graciously assisted through the years at the research and schools for all in the US, as did Charles Peck with the Community Participation Book Reviews for the Series. 

And Gaylord-Ross has already passed in the public school integration sets with Robert York newly retiring, and Allison Ford and Syracuse's Linda Davern. In case anyone wonders, Wolf Wolfensberger (now deceased) did in the 1970s support very young integration of children, and forms of family support (not even named as such then), but to my knowledge taught ("Residential Services" -manual upstairs was very, very good) but did not publish in those areas in refereed journals (as normalization, social role valorization). He also did not teach clinical psychology (I later was a graduate student in this field as a medical student in Chicago, and had undergraduate work at Cornell before meeting him) which was his new educational background for the school systems. 

Greetings also to Sue Lehr (with husband Bob, and son Ben) of Tully, New York, who was writing on self advocacy with Steve Taylor in the extensive citations and is known with Peter Knoblock for College for Living (we started it new back in the 1970s) at Onondaga Community College. Stan Searl was over at Union College in New York, and was also a friend of Steve Taylors. For the parents at after school programs, comes in about Davern and Ford, at the community agencies, and Jennifer York was in with Terri Vandercook from Minnesota (See, also Colleen Weick, State DD Council and Partners in Policymaking). Dianne Ferguson (site visit to Oregon, community residences) and Phil Ferguson are "still together" and out West, and Phil was found at historical institutional writings. Janet Duncan was at SUNY-Cortland and education and disability departmental in the late 2000s.

Just added in Ann and Rud Turnbull's special education textbook from 1995 with the concepts of inclusion, zero reject, cooperative teaching, natural proportions, and special education supports with in general education. Zero reject came from the community sector and led to the concepts of community services for all in the US. Ann and Rud also highlight key concepts from cultural competence (perennial), parent-to-parent, and the importance of children's friend-ships. Best wishes in their retirements!!

Arc of Minnesota. (1988). Integrated education. FOCUS, Winter, 4-5.

Berrigan, C. (1989, November). All students belong in the classroom: Johnson City Central Schools, Johnson City, New York. TASH Newsletter, 6-7.  

Biklen, D. (1985). Achieving the Complete School: Strategies for Effective Mainstreaming. NY, NY: Teachers College Press. 

Biklen, D. (1992). Schooling Without Labels: Parents, Educators and Inclusive Education.  Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 

Biklen, D., Ferguson, D. & Ford, A. (1989). Schooling and Disability. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 

Bogdan, R. (1983). "Does Mainstreaming Work?" is a silly quesiton. Phi Delta Kappan, 64: 427-428. 

Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (1982). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 

Brown, L., Ford, A., Nisbet, J., Sweet, M., Donnellan, A., & Gruenwald, L. (1983). Opportunities available when severely handicapped students attend chronological age appropriate regular schools. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 
8(1): 16-24. 

Brown, L., Nietupski, J., & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (1976). Criterion of ultimate functioning. In: M. A. Thomas, Hey, Don't Forget About Me! (pp. 2-15). Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

Center on Human Policy. (1986, March). Materials on Integrated Early Education Programs for Children with Severe Disabilities. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Community Integration Project.

Center on Human Policy. (1986). Materials on Integrated School Programs for Students with Severe Disabilities. (Bibliography, James Knoll). Syracuse, NY: Community Integration Prject, Center on Human Policy.

Duncan, J. (1990, May). Materials on Integrated Education. Syracuse, NY: Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation and Research and Training Center on Community Integration. 

Ford, A. & Davern, L. (1989). Moving forward with school integration: Strategies for involving students with severe handicaps in life of the school. In: R. Gaylord-Ross, Integration Strategies for Persons with Handicaps. (pp. 11-31). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Ford, A., Foster, S.B., Searl, S.J., &Taylor, S.J. (1984). The Brown School Model Project: A Description. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center on Human Policy. 

Forest, M. (1984). Education/Integration: A Collection of Readings on the Integration of Children with Mental Handicaps into Regular School Systems. Downsview, Ontario: The G. Allan Roeher Institute. 

Gaylord-Ross, R. & Peck, C.A. (1985). Integration efforts for students with severe mental retardation. In: D. Bricker, & J. Filler (Eds.), Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice. (pp. 185-207).  Reston, MD: Divison on Mental Retardation, Council for Exceptional Chldren.

Gilhool, T. & Stutman, E. (1978). Integration of severely handicapped students: Toward criteria for implementing and enforcing the integration imperative of PL 94-142 and Section 504. In LRE: Developing Criteria for Evaluation of the Least Restrictive Environment Provision. Washington, DC: US Office of Education, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. 

Guralnick, M.J. (1976). The value of integrating handicapped and non-handicapped preschool chldren. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46: 236-245. 

Guralnick, M. (1980). Social interactions among preschool children. Exceptional Children, 46: 248-253. 

Hamre-Nietupski, S., Nietupski, J., Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1984). Preparing school systems for longitudinal integration efforts. In: N. Certo, N. Haring, & R. York, Public School Integration of Severely Handicapped Students: Rational Issues and Progressive Alternatives. (pp. 104-141). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Knoll, J. & Meyer, L. (1985). Principles and practices for school integration of students with severe disabilties: An overview of the literature. In: M. Berres & P. Knoblock, Managerial Models of Mainstreaming. Rockville, MD: Aspen. 

Lehr, S. & Taylor, S.J. (1986). Preparing for Life: A Manual for Parents on the Least Restrictive Environment. Boston, MA: Technical Assistance for Parent Programs, Federation of Children with Special Needs.

Lipsky, D. & Gartner, A. (1989). Beyond Separate Education: Quality Education for All. (pp. 255-290). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Meyer, L.H. & Kishi, G.S. (1985). School integration strategies. In: K.C. Lakin & R.H. Bruininks, Strategies for Achieving the Community Integration for Developmentally Disabled Citizens. (pp. 231-252). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.  

Racino, J. (1999). Youth and community life: Perspectives of adults with disabilities on personal assistance services. Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All.  (pp. 207-224). NY, NY and London: The Haworth Press. 

Racino, J. (1999). The role of family case study research in family policy: Local agency delivery systems. In: Policy, Program Evaluation and Research in Disability: Community Support for All. (pp. 235-261). Binghamton, NY and London, UK: Haworth Press. 

Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. (1984). A rationale for the merger of special and regualr education. Exceptional Children, 51: 102-111. 

Strully, J. & Strully, C. (1985). Friendship and our children. Journal of the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, 10: 224-227. 

Taylor, S. J. (1982). From segregation to integration: Strategies for integrating severely handicapped students in normal school and community settings. Journal of the Association of the Severely Handicapped, 7(3): 42-49. 

Taylor, S.J., Biklen, D., Lehr, S., & Searl, S.J. (1987). Purposeful Integration..Inherently Equal. Boston, MA: Technical Assistance for Parent Programs (TAPP), Federation for Children with Special Needs.

Turnbull, A.P. (1982). Preschool mainstreaming a policy and implementing analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 4(3): 281-291.  

Turnbull, A.P. & Blacher-Dixon, J. (1979). Mainstreaming handicapped children in Region IV Head Start. In: A. R. Sanford & H. C. Henley, The 1979 Report of Services to the Handicapped Region IV Head Start. Chapel, NC: Training-Outreach Project. 

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, H.R., Shank, M., & Leal, D. (1995). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools. Englewood, NJ: Englewood Cliffs.

Turnbull, A.P. & Winton, P. J. (1983). A comparison of specialized and mainstreamed preschools from the perspectives of parents of handicapped children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 8(1): 57-71.  

Voeltz, L.M (1980). Children's attitudes toward handicapped peers. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88: 630-637.  

Voetltz, L.M. (1982). Effects of structured interaction with severely handicapped peers on children's attitudes. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86: 380-390.

Voeltz, L.M. (1984). Program and curriculum innovations to prepare children for integration. In: N. Certo, N. Haring, & R. York, Public School Integration of Severely Handicapped Students: Rational Issues and Progressive Alternatives. (pp. 155-183). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

York, J., Vandercook, T., & MacDonald, C. (1989). Feedback from Educators and Classmates about Inclusion in Middle School. Minneapolis, MN: Universityof Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. 

York, J., Vandercook, T., MacDonald, C. & Wolff, S. (1989). Strategies for Full Inclusion. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community Integration. 


Wednesday, March 22, 2017

American Society for Public Administration: Annual Conference 2017 in Atlanta, Georgia

The 2017 Annual American Society for Public Administration Conference,  Saluting the Public Service, was held in Atlanta,Georgia at the Sheraton Downtown Hotel Conference Center from March 17-22, 2017. The Welcome Letter was from Nathan Deal, Governor of the State of Georgia, who applauded members for their dedicated service and wishes for a successful and enjoyable conference.

The Elliot Richardson Lecture was delivered effectively by former Governor L. Douglas Wilder of the state of Virginia, the first African American to be elected Governor in the US. According to the ASPA, his critically acclaimed memoir is Son of Virginia: A Life in America's Political Arena and I was pleased to extend greetings from New York (current Governor Andrew Cuomo, son of Matilda and Mario Cuomo). 

ASPA's current Presidencies have switched to the domain of women with immediate Past- President Maria P. Aristigueta, current President Susan T. Gooden, and newly elected President Janice La Chance with Executive Director William P. Shields, Jr.  In 2015, Julie Ann Racino attended the Leadership Meeting of ASPA and met both Maria Aristigueta and Susan Gooden, and in 2016 attended the Public Administration and Law dinner featuring Susan Gooden's new book on social equity.

Instead of a regional chapter membership, Julie Ann Racino is an International Chapter member of the American Society for Public Administration in part due to international consultations. The Fred Riggs International Symposium participants were given information on International Agendas in the Field of Disability (E.g., UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, International Right to Health) in 2016.  These included:

United States
US Direct Professional Support Workforce and the US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare

US Patient and Affordable Care Act and the US Health Care Exchanges

US National Independent Living, Disability and Rehabilitation Research, US Department of Health and Human Services

US Presidential Campaign, Criminal Justice Reform, Universal Health Care, and International Relations

US Health Reform and Individual, Family and Community Health vs. Behavioral Health Care (e.g., Independent Living)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights and UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child (and Family Policies Around the World)

United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

World Health Organization Mental Health Programme

International Disability Rights Monitor

Health and Human Services in the International Environment: Rehabilitation Centers and Regional Development, Water, Sanitation, and Vaccinations (Environment)

Migrants, Immigrants and Refugee Programs

Sustainability, Inclusion and Equity in Cities of the World

In 2017, the Fred Riggs International Symposium (one of two held on Friday, March 17, 2017) included presentations on Governance and Community Development, Challenges to the Public Sector: Ethics, Integrity and Corruption, Redefining the Role of Public Service Under Pro-Market Reforms in Asia, Comparing Public Service in Africa, Role of National and International Nonprofit Organizations in Governance, and Performance, Strategic Management, and Policy in Public Organizations. The International Hosts were Veronica Junjan of the University of Twente, Netherlands and Gedeon Mudacumara of Cheney University of Pennsylvania, both of whom have been in contact in 2016-2017 to the International Chapter Membership of American Society for Public Administration. 

The Deli S. Wright  Symposium was held concurrently and was sponsored by the Intergovernmental Administration and Management Section of ASPA. I attended the wrapup by Eric Zeemering and Mark Wright where Dovie Dowson, of Public Administration and the Law, subsequently discussed the next agenda for Denver, Colorado in 2018. This Symposium featured the Local and Government Review (also a journal), Collaborative Public Management moderated by Cynthia Bolling, and an Intergovernmental Management: European Perspective. Simultaneously, a workshop was held on Transportation in the 21st Century, a Labor Relations Workshop and on on Women in Leadership Roles. 

More information will be made available on the Saturday and Sunday events, the meetings of the Formation Section on Public Administration and Disability, and the presentation titled:
Expanding Theories in Disability and Community: From Community Integration to Community Inclusion, Equity and Sustainability in the Age of Terrorism. Moderator and Presenters for the latter were listed as: Allan Bergman, Julie Ann Racino, Stephen Rolandi, and Andrea Huston. The presentation was approved as Public Administration Theories for the Annual Conference and a paper for submission in 2017-2018 will be finalized. For 2018 in Denver, Colorado, Gedeon Mudacumara welcomes an international panel for the Fred Riggs Symposium event. 

We also would like to thank the Carter Center and Museum for the welcome reception event on Saturday evening and museum tour, and for the receptions at the Sheraton, including the new Korean Institute on Public Administration. 

Submitted by Julie Ann Racino, Member of the International Chapter of American Society for Public Administration, and Formation, Co-Chair of the Public Administration and Disability, 2016-2017

Monday, October 24, 2016



Julie Ann Racino, Author of Housing, Support and Community


        By 2012, the National Council on Disability and Harvard University's Joint Center on Housing Studies, published on the State of the Nation's Housing, the former from a disability perspective. These significant reports follow decades of initiatives to guide the development of quality housing for all "in America" from Universal Design to Right to a Decent Home, Right to Ordinary Housing, Housing and Support for All, Accessible and Barrier-Free Housing and Institutional Closures, Consumer-Controlled Housing, and a substantial body of "Fair" Housing Rights and Laws (Racino, 2015, 135-137).

From Residential Segregation to Ordinary Homes and Homelife

      As described by leading advocates (e.g., Gunnar Dybwad of the International League, then of the Handicapped, now with Inclusion International) throughout recent decades, America has a history of residential segregation, even to the extent of being termed apartheid (Steven E. Brown, of Disability Culture) instead of multiculturalism or community integration. The roots of supported housing (critical initiative today) and supportive living are in efforts to move from a facility-based approach to community living (Racino et al, 1993) to Britain's ordinary homes (in Towell, 1988) and to America's stand on home ownership (Klein & Nelson, 2000).

    Ordinary homes and home life, from its religious icons (e.g., Hispanic in America) and family photographs (to social media, 2016), to taken for granted routines from dinners on the go, to daily grind of day or evening jobs, or the joys of successes (e.g., college acceptance, "first steps"), to the meaning of "birth or later in life disability". In 2016, the working, lower and lower half of the middle class have been diverging from the top half of America called "income and social inequality". Homes represented America's family's major asset which increased in equity "for the most part" (annual real estate market values) with a 2008 recession and new housing foreclosures.

Where Are We Today Versus Where Do We Want to Be?

     The US Housing and Urban Development, which concentrates on the use of government funds for housing in America, regularly describes its newest initiatives to "confront poverty" and focus on population groups (e.g., Indian policy), be "big brother" at housing finance and policy, to assure accessibility and integration, and integrate health and housing for better "children's futures" (Evidence Matters, 2013-2016). The disability communities do call for initiatives of their own and supported housing units and their integration was a priority (e.g., Frank Mellville Supportive Housing Investment Act of 2010). 

     US HUD highlights its newest initiatives: Highland's Garden Village, a mixed income, mixed use development in Denver, Colorado choose from for-sale, for-rent, market rate, and affordable units in a pedestrian friendly community with nearby retail, transit, health and outdoor recreation facilities (Spring, 2013). Ordinary citizens often know these as project development (location, sitings) and local hearings; housing and community development planners are the local nexus with the real estate, business and non-profit industries and other "interest groups" (e.g., Policy Link, ethnic groups as equitable development).

      John O'Brien and David Towell in 2010 developed a framework for Building Sustainable and Inclusive Communities with core social and development concepts:
* Reducing carbon footprints
* Social inclusion
* Sustainable prosperity in a globalizing economy
* Social cohesion despite increasing diversity
* Current economic downturn
* Adaptation to changing age and family demographics
* Shaping good places to live
* Meeting rising expectations to public service
* Respecting rights
* Personalization
* Effective response to chronic health conditions
(in Racino, 2015, 126-127). 

      However, the roots in 1989 to 1994 of the leading books in housing were on Homelessness (e.g., ignored homeless families, Seltzer & Miller, 1993; urban poverty and housing crisis, Timmer et al, 1994) which continues to permeate the definition and funding of problems today (e.g., emergency shelters and supported housing). The "housing" solutions continue (e.g., in Seattle, Washington, ASPA, 2016) to fund a non-profit agency to serve a targeted group (e.g. those with alcohol and substance abuse problems). In addition a "surveillaince" versus "supervision" approach, is anticipated to have major effects,  particularly if no publications indicate either and "outpatient, involuntary treatment" is on the rise.

      What is known for decades is not addressed (Racino, 2001, bibliography), and already start with rules that will result on the front end or during the program with exclusion from housing of the targeted population group. Known as "creaming" in the 1970s, the process has begun to both "label the well" (the working classes or managerial classes, without jobs and as clients) and to strip the targeted "disability class" into a poverty or prison-detention class. In part "good intentions" such as McKnight's (leading speaker to professional workers nationwide) were interpreted as "community workers as better than service professionals" in Osborne and Gaebler's Reinventing Government.  

New Initiatives of Government and Non-Profit Sector

    The Housing First and Consumer Choice initiatives (remembering pay $55,000 "public funds" salary for the "choice of homelessness" came in?) are exemplified as tied to "harm reduction for homeless individuals with a dual diagnosis" in New York City (Tsembris, Gulcur, & Nakae, 2004), as the voluntary life sharing group continue their lifelong aspirations for pay. And the "medical and psychiatric class" when asked to "produce a research study" use statistics to bring in positions that it is less stressful for their clients to live in poor surroundings (that is for a federal government housing voucher study for portability to good neighborhoods based upon decades of research findings on quality of life outcomes) (Schmidt, N., Lincoln, A., Nguyen, W., Acevedo-Garcia, D., & Osypuk, T., 2014). Now in the Schmidt study did "we" start "our desired housing option" with tobacco use and"conduct disorder" (boys' behaviors "got worse" or "MTO treatment worsened boys' mental health") in as part of portability vouchers?

      Another is a Supported Housing ("peer-reviewed"article) that begins with housing as an "ubiquitous need" at the "post-deinstitutionalization era" and charts "treatment non-compliance" indicating an "unskilled public administration and community class" (medical and psychiatric taking other people's jobs at housing and community development) now involved (Wong, Filoromo, & Tennille, 2007). 
*Is supported housing in? Yes. 
*Is it now at new opportunities to make the best housing possible to address the "general and mental health populations"? Yes. 
*Are we starting at the right place? To address mental health housing, should be yes. To address the general population needs in mental health? No, never start categorical has always been known. 
*Are we at the right personnel and departments? No. Anyone see the housing departments yet? *What is the new problem? Mental health needs in prisons and jails, increasing. 
*What are time immemorial problems? "Noncompliance" at "forced and illegal medications" reported again.

       In the realm of "Supportive Living" which has remained relatively stable for decades (Braddock et al, 2015; see also, family support on the blogspot),  quality of life outcome studies continue to follow the deinstitutionalization movement from public congregate care to smaller group home-like settings, such as the Hissom court-ordered closure in Oklahoma (Conroy et al, 2003). These community plans have been reported as successful in states as "full conversion" (about 80-90%, Agranoff, 2013) where there is a commitment to ordinary homes and smaller foster or group home versus large residential facilities. However, massive reports of use of behavioral interventions by state and local governments and "its agents" (Mowbray, Grazier & Holter, 2002),  have been reported as increasing in the US. These interventions are associated with "housing" and "homes" (the field of residential services management) and schools with mental health to behavioral health and special education and gender- not inclusive education in ascendancy. 

     While Independent  Living and Supportive Living are supported at federal levels (e.g., Administration on Community Living), in the context of housing (See, Pinterest/Community and Policy Studies), often the studies will be "program categorical" (as, without housing departments, or even separate housing, non-profit broads) or with broader initiatives (e.g., independent living in facility developments). 
Table 4.1 (in Racino, 2015, pp. 82-83) on Services In Supported Housing
Supportive Housing*: intensive rehabilitation and medical, outpatient mental health and substance abuse, educational/ vocational, recovery and rehabilitation (e.g., education on psychotropics, peer counseling, support groups, meal preparation), general (e.g., entitlements, case management), and health and medical.
"Supportive Living": options which include family and individual support, community participation,  communication and specialist services (e.g., sensory ), "leisure and recreation", and independent living or family counseling,  in health programs. 
(*Corporation for Supported Housing and Technical Assistance Collaborative, 2008).

      Housing and Services, as originally conceived in disability and health care, can be found in Pynoos' 2004 book on Linking Housing and Services for Older Adults with Heumann and Racino (1992) and Racino &  O'Connor (1994) attempting to influence future develop-ments. Pynoos is reporting on the proliferation of "residential facility categories" (common governmental programs with assisted and supportive living), Heumann represents an independent living choice approach which includes choice of facilities, and Racino & O'Connor were working with Steven J. Taylor at the federal science industry on facilities to homes (funding under categories, community integration, and later, supportive living). Supported housing, however with mental health roots, claimed regular housing with diversity of services or options (e.g., delivery as different agencies relating to one individual) (Madison Mutual Housing Association, Racino et al, 1993).

     The disability groups in Access and Inclusion can continue at "community integration" to assure the inclusion of critical "disability" issues (e.g., communication access, mobility access) in regular housing developments, including the annual housing surveys and each and every housing and city development (e.g., universal design) (Prieser & Ostroff, 2001). Of course, all modernization is at least go green (Berke, 2008) and sustainable (not just molds and allergies in "sick houses", and now to the forefront, lead in school drinking water), go energy efficient (e.g., furnaces, windows and Energy Star ratings), and inclusive and equitable (which may be 
"hands across the water") with gender-based in political ascendancy. In general, the best books on housing policy are still "generic" (public or general focus, e.g., housing financing) with "weakness" on "disability and integration" (Schwartz, 2010).

References and Bibliography 
Agranoff, R. (2013). The transformation of public sector intellectual/developmental disabilities programming. Public Administration Review, 73: S127.

Berke, P. R. (2008). The evolution of green community planning, scholarship, and practice. American Planning Association, 74(4): 393-407.

Braddock, D., Hemp, Richard, Rizzolo, M.C., Tanis, E. S., Haffer, L., & Wu, J. (2015). The State of the States in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Emerging from the Great Recession. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Coleman Institute for Cognitive Disabilities, University of Illinois-Chicago, and American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 

Conroy, J., Spreat, S., Yuskauskas, A., Elks, M. (2003). The Hissom Closure Outcome Study: A report on six years of movement to supported living. Mental Retardation, 41(4): 263-275.

Corporation for Supportive Housing and the Technical Assistance Collaborative. (2008). Leveraging Medicaid: A Guide to Using Medicaid Financing in Supportive Housing. With permission. Boston, MA and Washington, DC: Author. 

Harvard Joint Center on Housing Studies. (2012). The State of the Nation's Housing, 2012. Cambridge, MA: President's and Fellows of Harvard College. 

Heumann, J. & Racino, J. (1992). Independent living and community life: Building coalitions among elders, people with disabilities and our allies. Generations, 16:43-47.

Klein, J. & Nelson, D. (2000). Homeownership for people with disabilities: The state of the states in 1999. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 15(2/3), 67-68.

Mowbray, C., Grazier, K., & Holter, M. (2002). Managed behavioral health care in the public sector: Will it become the third shame of the states? Psychiatric Services, 53(2): 157-170.

O'Brien, J. & Towell, D. (2010). Conversations about Sustainable and Inclusive Communities. London: Center for Inclusive Futures.

National Council on Disability. (2010). The State of Housing in America in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Author. 

Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 

Preiser, W. & Ostroff, E. (2001). Universal Design Handbook. NY, NY: McGraw Hill. 

Racino, J. (2000). Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life: Toward Universal Approaches to Support. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.

Racino, J. (2001). Housing, Support and Disability: Contextual Literature, 2001 (2015). Rome, NY: Community and Policy Studies. [Bibliography available for $20.00, 69 pp.]

Racino, J. (2015). Housing and disability: Toward inclusive, sustainable, and equitable communities. In J. Racino, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. (pp. 123-156). Boca Raton, FL, NY, NY and London: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.

Racino, J. & O'Connor, S. (1994). "A home of our own": Homes, neighborhoods and personal connections. In M. Hayden & B. Abery, Challenges for a Service System in Transition: Ensuring Quality Community Experiences for Persons with Developmental Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S., & Taylor, S. (1993). Housing, Support and Community. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Schmidt, N.M., Lincoln, A.K., Nguyen, Q., Acevedo-Garcia, D., & Osypuk, T. (2014, February). Examining mediators of housing mobility on adolescent asthma: Results from a housing voucher experiments. Social Science Medicine, 107: 136-144. 

Schwartz, A. (2010). Housing Policy in the US. NY, NY: Routledge. 

Seltzer, B. & Miller, D. (1993). Homeless Families. Urbana & Chicago, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. 

Timmer, D.A., Eitzen, D.S., & Talley, K.D. (1994). Paths to Homelessness: Extreme Poverty and the Housing Crisis. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 

Towell, D. (1988). An Ordinary Life in Practice: Developing Comprehensive Community-Based Services for People with Learning Disabilities. London: King Edward's Hospital Funds. 

Tsemberis, S., Gulcur, L., & Nakae, M. (2004, April). Housing first, consumer choice, and harm reduction for homeless individuals with dual diagnosis.  American Journal of Public Health, 94(4): 651-656.

Wong, Y., Filomoro, M. & Tennille, J. (2007). From principles to practice: A study of implementation of supported housing for psychiatric consumers. Administration of Mental Health and Mental Health Services, 34: 13-28.


Monday, October 3, 2016


Disability, Universal and Human Rights in the Global Context

Julie Ann Racino, October 2016

            In 2016, I sought to catch up with our Canadian colleagues and found Marcia Rioux, now of York University, and then of the Canadian Association for Community Living at work on human rights in Pakistan and India. Her book chapters include new contributions in Coercive Care: Rights, Law and Policy, Inclusive Education Across Cultures, and as co-editor of a reader titled: Critical Perspectives on Human Rights and Disability Law. By the titles, one might surmise that all has not been well in Canada, and indeed the North American continent as expected by students of history of disability throughout the ages.

            The context of two books (See, on Inclusive Education) and their analyses stem in part from a review of international treaties and nation-state agreements in conjunction with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN ENABLE, 2006). These critical documents include:
* the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948),
* International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights,
* UN Convention on the Rights of the Child,
* The Inter-American Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination,
* International Conventionon Economic, Social and Culural Rights,
* Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and for the Improvement of Mental Health Care,
* African Commission on Human and People's Rights,
* European Committee for Prevention of Torture and Inhumane and Degrading Treatment of Punishment,
* World Programme of Action Concerning Pesons with Disabilities,
* Standard Rules of Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities,
* European Convention of Human Rights, and
* Convention on Eliminating All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, among others (e.g., World Bank Tribunals, Bulgarian Helsinki Committee,University of Chile Legal Programme on Disability).

           The books are known as Public Administration and the Law books and are involved with "jurisprudence" (e.g., legal capacity, consent to treatment, civil codes- "100 article changes", critical court cases, guardianship; legal concepts such as bodily integrity and reasonable accommodations) versus PA's "governance" (the frameworks of the treaties and their organization's within the governmental and societal sectors). The books are relevant to at least 650 million persons with disabilities worldwide, their families, friends and those involved in cities and communities. On the latter, excellent chapters are offerred the reader on:
*Inclusion, social inclusion and participation
*Involuntary treatment, human dignity and human rights
*Disabled women's sexual, reproductive and parenting rights
*Reasonable accommodation and substantive equality for persons with disabilities
*Rights of disabled prisoners in the UK
*Legal protections in Kenya for persons with disabilities
*Standards Rules of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities and the role of training, support services and auxiliary resources, among others.
These books bear resemblance to the 1970s Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter magazine which dealt with similar cases and laws (e.g., "egregious human rights violations" such as psychosurgery). Throughout the books, the authors give insight into the "moment by moment" debates, for example, arguing that a person cannot be punished for a future action that they will "presumably do", arguing against newer laws (e.g., 1994) with mandatory psychiatric treatment in Columbia, against equation of disability with incapacity, and the changes from the former "best interest" and "substitute decisionmaking" standards due to "sluggish development" even of leading courts (e.g., European Courts of Human Rights).

     This author thanks Marcia Rioux and her colleagues for their contributions on updating areas such as sexual and reproductive rights to the 21st Century context, respect for individual autonomy of the latter half of the 20th Century, for warning that the courts are using the concepts of therapeutic treatment (provider-determined concept, e.g., "Snakepits to cash cows) to allow egregious human rights violations, describing the view of "children apprehended" (police and workers) and removed from a "deaf mother", on the changing views of equality of opportunity and related models ("allowing people with disabilities to be players"), genetic markers and the new selective abortion, and surprisingly on discussions in academia so longstanding that they are termed: RED (redistribution discourse), MUD, moral underclass discourse, and SID, social integrationist discourse.

This author recommends we often start where we began:

"Everyone has the right to respect for "his" private and family life, his home and his correspondence."
(Article 8.1 European Convention on Human Rights)

Right to reproductive health, including family planning and maternal health services, and Right to marry and found a family in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

Persons with disabilities should not be denied the opportunity to experience their sexuality, have sexual relationships and experience parenthood. (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006)

International rights to access public transport in Chile (see, also Steven E. Brown's chapter in new book, Public Administration and Disability at

The premise underlying equality of opportunity is that everyone regardless of race, gender, disability, or other relevant personal characteristics, should have an equal opportunity and access to participate and exercise politial, social, economic and cultural rights.  (compared to equal treatment)

However, one must always recall in courts and law that:
Aristotle: "treating equals equally and unequals unequally" undergirds the peer concept and structures in disability and education fields.

And that the depth of work in these fields and cases influences all people in the US and multinationally (e.g., National Councils on Disabilty as multisectoral organizations, and involvement with Ministries of Education, Labour and Social Provision, Women and Family, Housing, Transport and Planning, Finance and Economics, and Foreign Relations per Marie Soledad Cisternos).

McSherry, B. & Freckelton, I. (2013). Coercive Care: Rights, Law and Policy. London and New York: Routledge.

Racino, J.A. (2015). Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. London: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.

Rioux, M., Basser, L.A., & Jones, M. (2011). Critical Perspectives on Human Rights and Disability Law. Leiden & Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.