Wednesday, October 9, 2019

International Assembly of American Society for Public Administration

International Assembly of the American Society for Public Administration

October 9, 2019

Julie Ann Racino, ASPA, International Chapter, 2019

          The International Assembly (Allan Rosenbaum, 2018) will be held in March 2020 in Anaheim, California in conjunction with the Society's Annual Meeting. The International Chapter of ASPA is a separate structure which is "equal in status" to the National Council Districts I, II, III, IV, and V. ASPA also hosts two international symposiums (Fred Riggs Symposium sponsored by the Section on International and Comparative Administration; Deli Wright Symposium sponsored by ASPA's Section on Intergovernmental Administration and Management) prior to the Annual Conference meeting every year. International Chapter (in 2018, Hugo Renderos, International Chapter Chair) also hosts panels during the Annual Conference. 

         The International Assembly in Denver, Colorado in March 2018 featured the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in which an International, United Nations Summit was held this year (October 2019).  In 2018, Julie Ann Racino of ASPA reaffirmed the importance of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) at the Annual International Assembly. In 2019, entrepreneur and philanthropist Bill Gates presented a controversial international environmental award to Narendi Modi of India and UN Secretary General Guittierez introduced the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (17 Goals). 

        The President of the United Nations Economic and /Social Council  in 2019 highlighted the inclusion imperative and asserted in the words of the "US federal leadership" that people are still being left behind (No Child Will Be Left Behind). Eloquently, the UN supported inclusive partnerships, civil society engagement, decent and participatory work for all, sustained and inclusive economic growth, schooling versus learning, advances in science and technology for common good, and a sustainable planet for people, planet and prosperity. The UN can make a difference! 

        In 2018, Julie Ann Racino at ASPA's International Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals noted the support of the international community for the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In particular, the call for quality housing, education, health, employment and recreation as critical aspects of the UN treaty which daily are public policy decisions regarding war, the future of children and families, and world peace (e.g., current situation in Syria). (Letter of March 12, 2018). As explained in 2012, one of the leading causes of disability (e.g., land mines, use of chemicals "on children") is war with tributes to war veterans, support for veteran families, and programs of non-violent and diplomatic solutions for Nation and world peace. 

       The Sustainable Development Goals follow the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) which were/are described in the book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration (Racino 2014) at The MDGs have high "worldwide poverty eradication" goals and predate the gender (girls and women) goals of the SDGs.
The "academic thinking" is much different post-technology (e.g., mobile cells "and banking") and goals for universal access though sanitation and water (in developing nations), education (always considered a primary way out of poverty), food security (versus malnutrition), and health care (e.g., disease eradication) remain prominent. 

        In the Future We Want Document the Rio de Janiero (Brazil) high level organization for the Sustainable Development Goals outcomes was featured from June 2012. In particular the public health challenges of 1.1 billion people in extreme poverty worldwide; the welfare of "women, children, persons with disabilities, fisher folk, smallholder and subsistence farmers, and small and medium sized enterprises"; improve the livelihoods and empowerment of poor and vulnerable groupsglobal health concerns on HIV-AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza and polio and neglected tropical diseases; and a goal of the "highest attainable standard of physical and mental health".  International Law and the UN Charter provide leadership:

To respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms of all, 
without distinctions of any kind as to race, color, sex, language, religion, political 
or other opinion, national or social origin, disability or other status. 

The document also reviews key UN Conferences and Treaties including:
* Instanbul Programme of Action on Developing Countries (2011-2020)
* 1997 Nairobi Declaration on "Rule and Mandate of" United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP established 1972)
* Universal Declaration of Human Rights
* International Conference on Population and Development (with sexual and reproductive health)
* UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (post UNCRPD, United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities)
* New Partnership of African Development, and 2008 Political Declaration on Africa's Development Needs
* Basel, Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions on Hazardous Wastes (Hazardous Waste Movements, Pesticides and Chemicals in International Trade, Persistent Organic Pollutants)
* UN Convention on the Law of the Seas
* UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (December 2011 Conference of Parties in Durbin, South Africa)
* UN Convention on Biological Diversity (10th Meeting, 2011-2020)
* UN Conference on Environment and Development
* High Level Meeting on the MDGs of 2010 ("right to self determination of people living under colonial and foreign occupation")
* Monterrey Consensus, 2005 World Summit Outcomes
* Programme of Action of Small Island Developing Nations (document updates online, 2018)
* Almaty Programme on Landlocked Countries (Ukraine, 2019, Black Sea Trade!) and Transit Transport Cooperation (to trade institutions and trade treaties) to trade liberalization, "trade distorting subsidies", and trade in environmental goods and services
* Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (on technological transfer and finance, Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission)
* Hyogog Framework for Action (2005-2015) on natural disasters
* Regional plans as Arab, Latin America, Carribbean, and Asia-Pacific Region (ASPA Riggs Symposium, world regions of Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and North America, 2015, Chicago, Illinois)
* UN Convention to Combat Desertification (with new views of floating islands in Saudi Arabia at capital development/jar)
* UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination (includes equal rights, gender mainstreaming/budget, gender sensitive indicators, and sex disaggregated data*-See, UNCRPD, at UN Gender Equality and Empowerment).
* UN Convention Against Corruption with serious global financial and economic challenges (which precedes the UN Security Council Meeting in March 28, 2019 on Preventing and combating the financing of terrorism).  

The Future We Want Outcome document highlights the Sustainability Agenda: Sustainable Energy for All, Sustainable Tourism and Transportation, and Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements** (e.g., habitats, affordable housing/jar migrations, human displacement-war, famine, civil unrest, and refugee camps), and UN Decade for Education on Sustainable Development (2005-2014). 

         ASPA International in March 2016 at its Annual Conference in Seattle, Washington, highlighted health and human service refugees**, "world migratory patterns" (now based on climate change), and the United Nations. As the world knows (excellent press coverage, "world news"), the US is in a southern border crisis related to migrations through Mexico (termed Presidents Obama and Trump on immigration) which follows migrations to Europe resulting in similar actions to close borders, restrict or limit entry into Nations, protest "immigrant allocations of the European Union", return refugees to home Nations, provide "transitory housing and food assistance", to opening arms and welcoming the new diversity and the visible protest rights of the new immigrants in the "host Nations".  

        In addition to Health and Human Services Administration (HHSA), Section on the Environment and Natural Resources Administration (SENRA), American Society for Public Administration features emergency and disaster management, nonprofit and civic engagement, and pays tribute to the military in public administration (ASPA, 2018).  ASPA (American Society for Public Administration) welcomes proposals for international and national panel presentations for its March 2020 Annual Conference. More news to come! Julie Ann Racino's SENRA article on the historic Paris Climate Accords was featured in December 2015. 





Monday, September 9, 2019

Climate Change, Green Economies, and the Future of Paris Climate Agreement

                 Climate Change, Green Economies, and the Future of the Paris Climate Agreement

by Julie Ann Racino
September 9, 2019

     CNN hosted a 7 hour debate on Climate Change with US 2020 Democratic Presidential Candidates on September 4, 2019. From 8 pm to 11 pm, I listened to our former Vice President Joseph Biden (nearing his retirement), Elizabeth Warren who has served in US Senate with Bernie Sanders, Bernie Sanders who narrowly missed the historic Democratic nomination to Hillary Clinton in 2016, Pete Buttigieg "commonly referred to as Mayor Pete", Beto O'Rourke deep in electoral politics in Texas, and Cory Booker who held my attention until he took on Christmas on CNN with "special privileges" with Chris Cuomo. 

     Anderson Cooper, Chris Cuomo and Don Lemon hosted and moderated the debate between 8-11 pm EST with questions/ inquiries from the audience. 

Bernie Sanders:  $16 trillion plan compared to the billions in fossil fuel subsidies.  He argued for saving the planet for future generations, supporting wind, geothermal and solar energy (and tax credits), addressing nuclear energy (20% of US, 70% of France), guaranteeing income for fossil fuel transitions (supported by AFL-CIO), Medicare for All, filibuster reform which blocks climate action, building homes after natural disasters, and working together to stop the weapons of mass destruction. 

Joe Biden:  Surprisingly, Biden stated no further coal plants and close coal plants in America, then use of electric vehicles, climate change sciences, controlling climate emissions, including high speed rail, supported the Paris Climate Agreement ("signed by President Obama"), new wind and solar energy, and continuing his position on fracking from Pennsylvania Governor. His personal story was on asthma, "the driving force behind the American Lung Association/jar2019". 

Elizabeth Warren: Supports a carbon tax, two plans costing $1 and $2 trillion, and suggests light daily tracks in the world. For some reason, she will follow Gov. Jay Inslee, on getting tough with the timelines, 2028 on no new buildings, then auto vehicles, and by 2035 full electrical generation (with nuclear energy replaced) for renewable energy. Warren wishes to reduce the carbon footprint, believes in science and research and development, and wants auto industries to experience a new innovation similar to the catalytic converter. 

She believes in saving the planet, green manufacturing ($17 trillion green world market), real jobs, worker and racial justice, and changing energy consumption patterns.When a Blue New Deal on making a living from the ocean was proposed from the audience, Warren said: "Count me in!" In addition, as stewards of the land, Warren will address communities under displacement and cultural erasure. 

Pete Buttigieg: Indicated that national governments have failed, and cities are living up to standards around the world. He supports carbon tax on fossil fuels, ag(riculture) stability (citing R&D in Department of Agriculture, net zero emission farms), Douglas plan toward health equity and community planning, electrical vehicles (development and use), regulatory requirements, and displaced workers from communities of color.  He expressed concern regarding the Trump trade wars which are affecting rural America. In addition to federal investment,  Pete Buttigieg supports generational, gender and racial justice and personal action (e.g., bikes to work as Mayor, takes the subway). He is an Afghanistan war veteran.

Beto O'Rourke: In support of the Paris Climate agreement (2015/2016), and well beyond (jar/2018 Warsaw, Poland, COP24) with plan for net zero green emissions by 2050. He supports legally enforceable environmental justice, cap and trade instead of a carbon tax, net zero emissions on public lands, and US being indispensable on the world stage. Citing the "lives of fellow Americans", he agrees to keep our obligations, with mitigation grants, disaster responses, housing close to work, investments in solar panels, regenerative agriculture, and support for people of color. He believes that climate can "be our first moment" (Winston Churchill) to lead the world, unite across party lines (environment), and transition the economy.  

Cory Booker: Important to look at what we are doing legislatively on climate; climate change has a disproportionate effect on people of color. Booker has proposed a Climate Stewardship Plan to enrich our heritage and deal with the climate crisis, and to explore (traditional, Dutch) windmills and new sources of revenue. He supports the use of cover crops in agriculture to pull carbon out of the air, urban gardens and addressing food deserts ("good and healthy"), clean drinking water, jobs on the farms from prisons, ban offshore drilling (absolutely) and fracking, independent family farmers, low income vulnerable communities, and embraces the possibility of cleaning up nuclear energy post Japan's Fukisima, Yucca Mountain, and (New Jersey's) Long Mile Island. 

Similar to Obama's critical use of the Voting Rights Act, Booker is particularly concerned about voter suppression and gerrymandering "which effect voting in America/jar". "Democracy is a verb-we must act". If elected as US President, "I will ask you to do more". However, he assured everyone that "Booker does not want to take away your hamburger" (he's a vegan and for freedom); indeed,"whatever you want to eat, go ahead and eat it". However, "We are going to be the change we want to be" and one more time must be in, (America's premiere world fast food restaurant) "McDonalds is not a healthy food system". "If America can compete, we can win." Booker is a civil rights activist and calls for a "moral imagination on climate". 

      Also featured were Democratic candidates Amy Klobaucher, Senator from Minnesota, Andrew Yang featured as an economics guru, Julian Castro who was featured in a New York Times article as former Mayor of San Antonio and US HUD Appointee, and Kamala Harris who took on Joe Biden on integration and busing "in California". Booker, Yang, Castro and Harris are considered "traditional minority candidates" (i.e. "former protected classes") as "American blacks/African Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans. Women, of course, are in "gender discrimination" classes (Klobaucher, Warren, Kamala-dual status), and Buttigieg in "LGBT discrimination" classes. Julian Castro explained that the US cannot withdraw from the Paris Climate Accords earlier than November 2020 (which is post-elections, 2020/jar). 

Bacot, A. H. and Damer R.A. (2000). Administration of state environmental policies. In: J. J. Gargan, Handbook on State Administration (pp. 591-612). NY, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 

Clinton Global Initiative. (September 22, 2014). 2014 Plenary: Confronting Climate Change is Good Economics. NY, NY: Clinton Foundation, Livestream Productions. 

Cooper, Anderson, Cuomo, Chris and Lemon, Don. (September 4, 2019). Climate Change: Democratic Candidates Town Hall. Washington, DC: CNN.

Friedman, Lisa. (September 4, 2019). Julian Castro defends record on fracking at Climate Forum. New York Times Online. 

Johnson, B. (2007). International environmental health programs. Environmental Policy and Public Health (pp. 325-377). NY, NY: CRC Press. http:/

Nicholaus, Peter. (July 27, 2016). Clinton wins historic nomination. Sanders puts rival over top in landmark movement. The Wall Street Journal, CCLXVIII, No. 22, p.1.

Popovich, Nadja, Albeck-Ropa, Livia, and Pierre-Louis, Kendra. (August 29, 2019). 84 Environmental rules being rolled back under Trump Administration. New York Times Online. 

Racino, Julie Ann. (December 31, 2015). Environment and Climate Change: From earth summit world leadership to today's sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. SENRA Newsletter, American Society for Public Administration, pp. 1-4. 

Sengupta, S. and Yardley, J. (2015, September). Pope Francis addresses U.N., calling for peace and environmental justice. New York Times Online. 

United Nations. (2015, September 25-27). Sustainable Development Goals Summit 2015. NY, NY: United Nations.




Sunday, June 2, 2019

Sciencenter in Ithaca, NY: Science Museums and US-International Networks

Sciencenter in Ithaca, NY: Science Museums and International Networks

by Julie Ann Racino
Member, Science and Technology in Government
American Society for Public Administration

June 2, 2019

     In 2016, I visited the Sciencenter in Ithaca, New York, one of the discovery center style museums that were created as community development projects in small towns and mid-size cities in the US. On one of my visits to Cornell University in the 2000s, where I studied the sciences in the 1970s as an undergraduate on a Dean's scholarship, the new Sciencenter was visible from the highway on the way into Ithaca via the Finger Lakes region.

     In the 1980s, the Discovery Center in Syracuse, New York opened its first downtown storefront exhibit, later moving to the Armory redevelopment district as the Museum of Science and Technology (MOST). The Museum already was the base for the Syracuse Science Congress hosted annually at then Nottingham High School and the Discovery Center Education Director already snagged this volunteer to coordinate judges for the Congress that year.

      I met the Science Museums not as a child, as many do (star parties and skylabs today), but as medical student majoring in clinical psychology at Northwestern University Medical School in the late 1970s, and spotting the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry on the Chicago city bus route (the Chicago Transit Authority). Visiting on a free admission Sunday, I marveled at the excitement of the school children running into the Museum and the bustling interest and learning, entering to see the swinging pendelum in the Grand Hall.

     The Sciencenter was delightful- the modern museum kiosk and travel passport program, the Carl Sagan Planetwalk through downtown Ithaca, New York, the classic build a dam albeit without waterfowl and plant effects, the underwater film on Cascadilla Creek and the water supply, the diverse natural habitats for species (e.g., Florida Mangroves), the new anatomical display structures of the hu'man' body (e.g., circulatory system), NASA live in space, and the ingenious display on mechanics and basic physics (e.g., gravity and motion).

     These centers are still options for new development today and attract visitors to the region, offer ongoing science education to children and adults of all ages, provide the base for community functions (e.g., meetings, events), (national-international) networking, experimentation and scientific studies, marketing sciences (e.g., STEM-Science, technology, engineering and math education), progressive science agendas (e.g., environment), new developments and competitions (e.g., robotics), and even retail sales!

Association of Science and Technology Centers (2016)

     In 2016, the Sciencenter served as a Member of the Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC) which melded Science Museums from different periods and genres, specifically the children's museums (one in neighboring Utica, New York; Staten Island, New York; Madison, Wisconsin; Portsmouth, Virginia; Dover, New Hampshire), freestanding planetariums and observatories (including the famed Adler Planetarium and Kopernik Observatory in Vestal, NY), selected science and industry museums (e.g., the Seattle Science and Industry Museum we visited with ASPA was not on the list), specialty museums (e.g., New York Transit Museum and National Museum of Mathematics in New York City, National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, Wisconsin), museums of natural sciences and history (e.g, in Texas and Washington), air and space museums (with US lead at the Smithsonian; Intrepid Sea, Air and Space in New York), and the discovery centers and sciences (also exploratoriums; Discovery Cubes). 

Friday, March 15, 2019


The New Faces of Public Administration in 2019-2020: 
Debriefing Post ASPA Washington, DC 

Friday, March 15, 2019

Julie Ann Racino, ASPA

       On Sunday March 10, 2019, I attended the meetings of ASPA Sections on Health and Human Services Administration (HHSA) and Science and Technology in Government (SSTIG). ASPA, celebrating its 80th anniversary, hosts a wide range of sections open to its membership. 

      These choices include:
1. Traditional affirmative action constructions (e.g., Women in Public Administration and Minority Administration) albeit without visible "Disability Administration" (major class in discrimination and human rights, e.g., Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities), 

2. The multiplicity of ethnic or nation-state minorities (e.g., Korean Administration, Chinese Administration) reflecting current thinking on "rights and control" which includes the new LGBT Alliance. "To continue, no the Hispanic Alliance is not a current section". 

3. Traditional "academic content and theory" of public administration, including "formerly the only high authorized access to public budgets" in US, personnel administration and labor relations, health and human services administration (new emphasis on health), public performance "and management", Public Administration and the Law, and intergovernmental administration. 

"Subsets now popular are Nonprofit Policy, Practice and Partnerships, Procurement and Contract Management and Procurement".

4. New emphases of governments in the US and globally, including "Section on Complexity and Network Studies", Democracy and Social Justice (e.g, South America), Emergency and Crisis Management, Public Management Practice, Historical, Artistic and Reflective Expression, and Sound and Effective Government in the Middle East. 

5. Strong "international emphasis" including the original SIAM (Intergovernmental Administration and Management) and SICA (Section on International and Comparative Administration) which "have been closing the US from traditional, comparative studies". In this context, a new "US Ethics and Integrity in Governance" and a strengthening and shift to public administration "Criminal Justice Administration"

6. The only "academic content by subject area" are Transportation Policy and Administration, Environment and Natural Resources Administration, and Science and Technology in Government. The context is: "Students and New Administration Professionals, Public Administration Research and Education, and Accountability and Performance". 

Meetings in Washington, DC on Science and Technology in Government (SSTIG)

     March is election time in ASPA in which Michael Ahn will be continuing as ASPA, SSTIG Chair for 2019-2020.  The roundtable meeting at the Mayflower Hotel was lively (full of ideas) and participatory boding well for an active membership year of the Section (SSTIG). I was delighted to appreciate the report on Artificial Intelligence, to meet the Section members, to share with our international colleague the Ithaca Science Museum photo (and the MOST, also in large cities to smaller cities, US and globally), and to have two doctoral student awardees at the event who will be working in the coming year with the Section. 

     ASPA, not traditional parliamentary** in style (Sections versus National Council), does not often vote on its section budgets and reports for the year (e.g., motion to accept, second to the motion, discussion, and all in favor-aye, nay, and abstention, decision on motion). And, indeed similar to the "current governments", protests at election are "in the wings" (at District Council instead to National Council). Reporting to the IRS by section is a new requirement which ASPA is implementing with its chapters and sections. And ASPA requires sections to report on their activities (e.g, Lisa Sidletsky, Program Chair, Main Office). 

 Meetings in Washington DC on Health and Human Services Administration (HHSA)

     The Health and Human Services Administration (HHSA) election from over a year ago resulted in "Cassandra Henson as Chair-Elect for 2019-2021" from Towson University in Maryland. Continuing to 2020 from the Executive Committee (posted in 2018) will be Kun Huang, Helisse Levine, and Charles Menifield. Vanessa-Lopez Littleton has won a new term from the posted 2017-2019. Alexander Henderson completed his Chair at this meeting in DC (2017-2019) and Julie Ann Racino served a "honorary term" from 2017-2018 (versus 2017-2020) on the Executive Board (HHSA). 

     In relationship to this meeting in Washington, DC, Alexander Henderson (Section Chair) reported via slides on the amendment to the Section ByLaws with a motion to accept, vote of ayes and nays, and an acceptance of the bylaw amendment as proposed.  [I indicated to the mixed group standing and sitting that there needs to be a place for nos- at Me Too ASPA Panel, 2019, and the Chair may have other nos.]  The Treasurer's report and a report on the budget for the journal were presented to the group; discussion indicated that the journal is separate from the section budget (Julie "tabled"). 

     Julie Ann Racino was pleased to report that two National Council members of ASPA led a panel which included both public health and the prison crisis which included those with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Racino, Rolandi, Huston, Bergman, 2017). In addition, health units within prisons and practices to viper to illness (at "mental health") were also mentioned in the group. Cassandra Henson was introduced and welcomed ideas for the new year of the HHSA Section. Membership open for 2019-2020 ASPA!

  **traditional Parliamentarians, approved; parliamentarian education groups in US (at toastmasters of ceremonies. 
Julie Ann Racino was pleased to meet public policy practitioners, academics, and leadership in the 1980s and 1990s via Syracuse University School of Education, Center on Human Policy and the US Department of Education, National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) at state leadership conferences in the US, public policy institutes, international meetings, and science and public policy meetings in Washington, DC. 

Current Academic Work in the Fields: Sciences and SENRA

     Text messages (Julie Ann Racino, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US) on the Samsung linking to CRC Press ( includes a high volume of academic texts related to the Section on the Environment and Natural Resources Administration (SENRA). SENRA met at the same time as the HHSA section in DC; Jill Tao (Chair), Sarmistha Majumdar (Past Chair), and Jonathan Fiske (Treasurer) were expected to be in attendance at the meeting.

     The CRC books, in addition to Jonathan Fiske's Routledge book on Fracking, include:
Air Quality, Fifth Edition; Climate Change Mitigation; Air Pollution Control Technology; Hazardous Air Pollutants; Environmental Chemicals; Dictionary of 21st Century Energy Technology; Local Exhaust Ventilation, among others (soil remediation, environmentally sustainable agribusiness, irrigation systems). 

     The categories of sciences range from environmental sciences and engineering, environ-mental chemistry, ergonomics and human factors (e.g., sitting, standing and carpal tunnel), water science and engineering, agriculture and life sciences ("agroecology"), biomedical sciences, and geological sciences, marine and acquatic sciences, neurosciences and neurology, pharmacology, biomedical imaging, among others (See, Science and Technology in Government -e.g., what is funded, valued, approved, negated, created or inspired, designed, manufactured, regulated, taught, licensed, patented, "our futures"). 

     Now, it should not be surprising that "scientific management" (e.g., very few inter-disciplinary science management groups) has been considered not successful in public policy and public administration (e.g., ASPA articles). In fact, it is highly unlikely that such management has ever entered any of the major positions in the government other than as suboffices or subfields (e.g., NIDRR, NIDILRR). Certainly, the Nation's health departments, science departments, and innovations firms disagree with any "non-scientific" approaches to public policy. An approach similar to President Obama's appointment of a technology office at high Executive gates is warranted.

     These areas with "behavioral public administration" indicates a lack of knowledge of the breadth, depth and scope of the workforces (e.g., "elimination of" community and clinical psychology in the US), knowledge bases (e.g, social work which is only academically 50 plus years young, almost replaced by human performance), and futures for American and global citizens. Academic workforces in America and their roles in leading and managing in government warrant further discussion at the highest levels. We appreciate Vice President Joe Biden's efforts to reshape public administration and its workforces through his new Institute at the University of Delaware in the decades yet to come. 

Health and Human Services Administration at ASPA in 2019

     Alexander Henderson indicated that 15 panels were endorsed by HHSA for the Annual Conference in Washington, DC.  In relationship to panels "not health or human services per se",  the taxes of Americans are one of the payor source for HHSA, the panel studies included "police studies" which require central (university) authorization under human subject protections, and the content of the studies ranged from  housing and housing authorities (city of Oakland), poverty and neighborhoods (reports of increasing and unabated poverty), opiods and "sober homes" (in Florida, retirement communities, at Attorney General), among others. 

     In addition, studies which snowball to top state officials are valued (e.g., education in state of Kentucky); however, the public administration groups have in the past been sought for their work with major US national databases (now available online), international comparisons on databases (e.g.,  Kammerman and Kahn), and for the creation of new databases when other data collection sources are "not available" (access via "Associate Professor")  or pertinent to the matters at hand. Policy Link was mentioned as a new private group which mapped the US on demographics longitudinally and offers a new database for studies and webinars. 

    We remain concerned about the directions that drive a "low ended behavioral and crime approach" to the "underworld" which appears daily on our national news. And indeed "emotional labor" screamed off a "chosen presentation" (yes, a prior association or society job "of my own") regarding "client verbal abuse" -unheard of in the history of the public administration profession. For the public, the words torture***, and illness reflected from prolonged abuse or repeated "vipering" have resulted in "untenable public positions and programs" in the US. 

     When subterfuge and punishment predominate over rehabilitation and sustainability (Racino, Rolandi, Huston, & Bergman, 2017), the current professions and their leadership continue to be in a state resembling more the Nation of Venezuela than the Nation of the Free (the "land of the free") and a nation for the oppressed ("and the home of the brave"), the United States of America. Regretfully, the latter is now at least half of the American population (e.g., "the middle class"or "inequality in America"). 

    We also thank ASPA (and its conference sponsors; full conference schedule available with photos and bios) for the Welcome reception on Saturday in the Mayflower Hotel, and the opportunities to meet and network with colleagues from US and around the world. 

***Remember that civil societies are also involved in horrendous acts in the world, involving civil society members based in part on forms of "classism, racism, ableism, ethnicism, sexism, and in today's terms other forms of bigotry and misogyny". Today, these are "raised" to forms of "hate crimes" indicating the depth of the feelings, the lack of civility and dialogue, and the precedence of "hate over charity and love". 

     In addition, "Gina Haspel" who recommended waterboarding in a recent US Congressional hearing is a long-time civil servant and was approved by "our electives" in that body and the "choice" of our new Republican President (seeking re-election in 2020). Even worse, in this world, was President Carter's position on no death penalty "with a response of " an immediate execution against the law of an individual with intellectual and developmental disabilities ("state laws"). 

ASPA (American Society for Public Administration) in 2019-2020

    ASPA offers a host of webinars, newly presented and designed throughout the membership year, and archives are available for past viewing in addition to the live events. ASPA also initiated Book Talks (new via Karen Garrett, replacing Melissa Williams) and authors can contact the Main Office personnel regarding live, interactive events for professional development. ASPA weekly news updates keeps members informed of developments in the public, professional and governmental sectors. Associational life (the societies) and journal listings (all fields) are available on the web, and more information is forthcoming. 

American Society for Public Administration
1730 Rhode Island Ave., NW, Suite 500
Washington, DC 20036

Author: Julie Ann Racino, Community and Policy Studies, 208 Henry Street, Rome, NY 13440-6506 USA (315533-6592)   
ASPA - HHSA, SSTIG, SENRA, International Chapter, Budget and Finance  2018-2019



Tuesday, January 15, 2019



Julie Ann Racino, President
Community and Policy Studies

January 15-16, 2019

        American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) announced its March 2019 registration for its Annual Conference to be held in Washington, DC. More information is available online at We are delighted that US Vice President Joseph Biden (D) of the Barack Obama Administration (D) will be leading a Presidential Panel on Workforces and look forward to his continuing leadership in that regard. 

        Meetings will take place, in addition to endorsed panels, of all ASPA Sections and Chapters, including: Science and Technology in Government, Section on the Environment and Natural Resources Administration, International and District Chapters, Public Administration and the Law, Health and Human Services Administration. Budget and Finance holds a separate conference which is available on the web at ABFM (Association of Budget and Financial Management). 

        For those interested in the Chairs of the Sections above in 2018-2019: STIG (Michael Ahn), SENRA (Jill Tao, replaces Sarmisthma Majumdar), International (Hugo Renderos, post David Simpson), HHSA (Alexander Henderson, post Espiridion Borrego and Dorothy Noriss-Tirrell),  and PA and the Law (Dovie Dawson).The journal, Public Budgeting and Financing, indicates the current Executive and Governing Boards. William Shields Jr remains as the Executive Director of ASPA, Amy Omang remains as Webinar and Conference Director, and Karen Garrett replaced Melissa Williams at the PA Times

ASPA 2018 Annual Conference

        Reviewing 2018, we were delighted to participate in the March 2018 ASPA Annual Conference in Denver, CO (See, HHSA endorsed panels, this blogspot/Community and Policy Studies). In addition, at the event, Julie Ann Racino met with the Section on Science and Technology in Government, and particularly appreciated the Exhibit Hall and displays ranging from Routledge (Division of Francis and Taylor books), Harvard Executive Education Programs, and Chinese University Public Administration Programs. The book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US (Racino, 2014) was on display together with a new book on LGBT civil rights. 

     The 2018 Annual Conference featured the Denver Aquarium reception which was absolutely fantastic! Current ASPA President Janice LaChance of the Clinton Administration, and Executive Director William Shields Jr. also appreciated the event. In addition, we had a small meeting and reception for Public Administration and the Law, courtesy of Dovie Dawson, at the Hyatt Hotel and Convention Center. For those looking for Syracuse University, Tina Nabatchi and Syracuse students attended the events, and Dr. Nabatachi was a plenary speaker at the Conference. Dr. Susan Gooden, who is now Dean of the VCU Wilder School of Public Policy, was pleased to have Governor Wilder of Virginia at the event. 

      The International Assembly featured the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and a panel of experts inclusive of the United Nations and the Slovak Republic. Julie Ann Racino spoke from the floor on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), in 2017 celebrating the 10th Convention of the State Parties at the UN located in New York City. In 2018, Julie Ann Racino drafted a new book chapter for International Public Administration, in process with Dr. Hugo Renderos, Chair International Chapter in 2019.  Dr. Lex Frieden, National Council on Disability (NCD) Chairperson, is featured together with Dr. Allan Rosenbaum, International Director of ASPA, and of course President Barack Obama who signed the Convention in 2009. 

ASPA and NeCopa to 2018

       The paper, Deinstitutionalization in the 21st Century: The state of the science in public administration and disability (Racino, 2018) was in final submission status from November 2017 NeCopa in Burlington, Vermont. Slides and handouts from the panel chaired by the University of Vermont are available upon request.  The paper cites a diversity of studies indicating the success of deinstitutionalization (e.g., Jim Conroy, Celia Feinstein, Canada's Alison Pedlar, "Australia's" Roger Stancliffe, Bonnie Shoultz, UK's Jim Mansell, Mary Hayden, Tamara Heller), and introduces/critiques the federal departments and workforces. We appreciated meeting Paul Danczyck at the Free Library reception downtown, and who also attended in Denver, CO and is ASPA's Vice President in 2018-2019. 

      Another paper Community integration in the US and Great Britain was also finished in 2018 (Racino, 2018), and introduces Nation-state reports by our university colleagues (e.g., Rud Turnbull in Tanzania) and critical 40 year results from disability developments in the United States (e.g., Americans with Disabilities Act and President George Bush; State of Long Term Services and Supports, 2005) and in the United Kingdom (e.g., National Development Team; Disability Discrimination Act of 1995). I was delighted to include "reference snapshots and footnotes" from the Clinton (e.g., children and family health care), Cuomo (and the US HUD Appointees, supported housing investments) and Trump (new Cabinet; See above) campaigns in the diverse academic papers. 

        Historical archives in the fields include academic contributions from our colleagues from social acceptance to independent living, normalization, community living, inclusion and equity,  family support, person-centered services, cultural reciprocity, and community integration, among others (E.g., Bogdan and Taylor, 1987; Carling, 1992; DeJong, 1997; Drum, Krahn & Bersani, 2009; Harry, Kaylanpur and Day, 1999; Larson, Hewitt and Lakin, 2004; O'Brien, 1999; Racino, 1999; Thomas and Wolfensberger, 1999; Racino, Rolandi, Bergman and Huston, 2017; Towell & Beardshaw, 1991). We appreciate the newest challenges of the public health-criminal justice-MLTSS ("managed" Long Term Services and Supports) industrial complex in the post-911 era of the 21st Century. 


       We expect 2019 to bring even more challenges than 2018, and hope you have also enjoyed the photoshots (e.g., Carter Center in 2016 in Atlanta, GA, SENRA in 2017 in Seattle, WA), led by the Square Market/Community and Policy Studies international reports (courtesy of David Towell of Great Britain).  We unexpectedly entered the 2016 US Presidential campaigns (delighted by the debates with Hillary Clinton (President's Health Security Plan) facing off against a full slate for the Republican nominees, and life certainly changed from the original plan! Now, who would pass up an opportunity to say hello ("meet and greets") to President William J. Clinton who autographed his book, My Life while lauding the attributes of his life partner in Syracuse, New York.

        More information forthcoming in the weeks ahead, and the Brexit vote (loss for Prime Minister Theresa May) on the European Union in the United Kingdom was yesterday (1/15/2019) together with the State of the State Address of New York by Governor Andrew M. Cuomo (video and news articles online), and a confirmation hearing (Spectrum, Channel 10) on US Attorney General William Barr. Both Cornell and Syracuse Universities (university alumni associations) have new telecast systems which also "google chromecast" lectures to the desktops or televisions. 

Julie Ann Racino
Community and Policy Studies
American Society for Public Administration





Monday, November 12, 2018

Recreation, Sports and the Arts: What Has Changed Since 2001 to 2018?

Recreation, Sports and the Arts: What Has Changed Since 2001?

Julie Ann Racino
Cornell and Syracuse University 

November 12, 2018

         In 1979, we began the first community integration programs (See, wikipedia) with community agencies (e.g., United Way network, Neighborhood centers, Folksmarch) making possible the participation of parents and their children who earlier were in institutions or at best, confined to a bed (or mat) in a home.  By then, the Arc-US and UCPA (1940s and 1950s) already had a lengthy history of advocacy, and began programs of education for their children and were already deeply involved with US courts at all levels.

         By the 1980s, the university sector (e.g., community rehabilitation, special education, child and family studies) began to document these efforts, ranging from camp integration to a range of leisure and recreation activities (e.g., community choir, social clubs). These integration activities influenced the elite and extremely life changing Special Olympics begun by Eunice Shriver to form a unified sports branch. Later developments included the International Best Buddies of Anthony Kennedy Shriver, active worldwide today. Examples of federally supported (education research and training) included:
Walker, P. (1994). Promoting inclusive recreation and leisure opportunities for adults.  In: M.S. Moon (Ed.), Making School and Recreation Fun for Everyone:Places and Ways to Integrate. (pp. 163-178). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Walker, P. (nd). Developing individualized supports: The experience of two chapters of the arc in rural New York State. Community Integration Report: National Arc Newsletter. Arlington, TX: The Arc-US.

Walker, P. & Edinger, B. (1988, May). The kid from Cabin 17. Camping Magazine, 18-21.

Walker, P. & Shoultz, B. (nd). Supporting children and youth with disabilities in integrated recreation and leisure activities. Community Integration Report. Arlington, TX: The Arc-US.

To explain, Betsy Edinger was hire through an award to Julie Ann Racino at TLS (Transitional Living Services) and Pam Walker was hired as a student-employee through our Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration at Syracuse University. Bonnie Shoultz was hired through the second refunding of the RRTC on Community Integration and managed a contract with Arc-US.

        Today, many programs, especially with "generic community sites"  and community participation are termed inclusion (e.g., inclusion and the Girl Scouts).  However, the NGOs of yesteryear which struggled with their service versus advocacy "roles and departments", are now major managed health care providers in the US still filed as 501.c.3 (charities). The future of inclusion, in the age post-diversity, no longer is a debate of segregation versus integration, but often a question of what the NGOs and governments will do, support and fund. 

       Leisure and recreation theories and practice were often termed therapeutic recreation with children's play therapy, and recreation professionals and volunteers (e.g., city park programs, ballsports) were and often are separately educated. These professions were involved for decades in approaches to human ecology, in deinstitutionalization (e.g., Pedlar, 1990), in sociology and leisure, in family and community health (Neff et al, 2000), and in the gender and ethnic analyses of "sports and recreation" (e.g., Sparhawk et al, 1989). Examples from that period were:

Carter, M. (1998). Increased professionalism: An experience from the United States. Journal of Leisurability, 25(2): 20--25.

Compton, D.M. (1997). Issues in Therapeutic Recreation. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing Co.

Godbey, G. (1997). Recreation and parks in a changing world: Becoming a health service. Parks and Recreation, 32(3): 91-106.  

Hemingway, J. (1996). Leisure: The recovery of freedom in leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 28: 27-43.

Henderson, K.A. (1994). Perspectives on analyzing gender, women, and leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 28: 27-43.

Neff, L.J., Ainsworth, B., Wheeler, F., Krumwiede, S., & Trepal, A. (2000). Assessment of trail use in a community park. Family and Community Health, 23(3): 76-84. 

Pawlcwski, A., Holmes, F., & Hafner, R.J. (1993, July). Wilderness therapy for psychiatric disorders. Mental Health in Australia, 5(1): 8-14.

Pedlar, A. (1990). Deinstitutionalization and the role of the therapeutic recreation in social integration. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 15(2): 101-112. 

Racino, J. A. (2000). Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. 

Schleien, S., Rynders, J., & Green, F. (1994). Facilitating integration in recreation environments. In: M. Hayden & B. Abery (Eds.), Challenges for a Service System in Transition. (pp. 121-145). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Sparhawk, R., Leslie, M., Turbow, P., & Rose, Z. (1989). American Women in Sport: 1887-1987: A 100 year Chronology. London: The Scarecrow Press. 

       In the health care fields, recreation was often funded through a "blanket" residential habilitation or even "prevocational" habilitation category (habilitation was in MLTSS-managed Long Term Services and Supports in 2013) under the home and community-based Medicaid Waivers. In addition, recreation itself may be pursued through "friendships or relationships" (Perske, Lutfiyya, Amado) which often results in the need to strengthen "tracks to Special Olympics" (See, also Paralympics, and integrated road racing, charity runs). Separate recreation teams have also been established through specialized service agencies (See, Square Market/Utica Monday Nite), and programs from traditional clubhouses (e.g., Besacom & Zipple, 1995), adult day services, and aging may also be the base for community integration or inclusion. For example:

Besacom, V. & Zipple, A.M. (1995). From day program to clubhouse: Practical strategies for supporting the transformation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 18(3): 7-15. 

Gold, D. (nd). Challenges to Integrated Leisure and to Friendships with Labelled People. Toronto, CA: Community Participation Consulting. 

Janicki, M. & Keefe, R. (1992). Casebook: Integration Experiences. Albany, NY: New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. 

Lutfiyya, Z.M. (1991). "A feeling of being connected" Friendships between people with  and without disabilities. Disability, Handicap, and Society, 6: 233-245. 

Perske, R. (nd, 1988). Circle of Friends: People with Disabilities and Their Friends Enrich One Another. Nashville, TN: Author. 

Pomes, L., Faus, L.L., Fredericks, B., Reiman, J., Neal, J., & White, J. (1998). Supporting deaf-blind students to develop social relationships. In: L.H. Meyer et al (Eds.), Making Friends: The Influence of Culture and Development. (pp. 299-316). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Strully, J. & Strully, C. (1992). The struggle toward inclusion and the fulfillment of friendship. In: J. Nisbet (Ed.), Natural Supports in School, at Work, and in the Community for People with Severe Disabilities. (pp. 165-177). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

     Other strands of "research and education" in rehabilitation had and have roots in nutrition or physical activity and fitness, especially with First Lady Michelle Obama's fight against obesity in America. However, often these approaches "shift to other dedicated professionals" which includes the professions of physical therapy (major offices and health care billings), chiropracty (post-X rays, new educational requirements), nutritionists (often employed in intermediate care facilities and hospitals-the classic 1,200 calorie diet), and occupational therapy to public health. The original intent might be closer to the macarena/folk dance, daily aerobics to dance, choosing new veggie in the grocery store, or having a modified physical therapy routine (e.g., pushup and situps).

      New practices were the "use of mood music" for relaxation, meditation and yoga, change in nutrition in publicly available foods (e.g., calories, fat content), group board games in the evening (e.g., cognitive, social), diversity of fresh produce, modernized home delivered meals, and new standards for physical activity (e.g., nautilus, pedometers) incorporated into health plans.  New practices were often developed through the eras of wellness and health promotion (e.g., bicycling versus autos); however, often with attention to specific "disabilities" (e.g., diabetes and scuba). In the prior period, beginning in the 1970s, the struggle between a cook in a group home (then apartments), and personnel cooking with house members, involved issues of nutrition, among others. Examples of this period (pre-public health gloves in restaurants):

American Public Health Association. (1990). Healthy Communities 2000: Model Standards. (3rd edition). Washington, DC: Author. 

Applegate, L. (2001, July). Nutrition: Liquid energy. Runner's World, 36(7): 24, 26. 

Feury, M. (2000, September). Walk of the weight. Woman's Day, 74: 54-61.  

Gaynor, M.L. (1999). Sounds of Healing: A Physician Reveals the Therapeutic Power of Sound, Voice and Music. NY, NY: Broadway Books.  

Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2): 163-190.

Prosterman, S.A. ( July/August). Safe scuba diving with diabetes. Diabetes Self-Management, 104-108. 

Siegel, P., Brackbill, R., & Heath, B. (1995, May). The epidemiology of walking for exercise: Implications for promoting activity among sedentary groups. American Journal of Public Health, 85(5): 706-710.

Spiller, C.S. (2001, July). The best veggies for you and how to cook them. Natural Health Magazine, 66-69, 105-107. 

Tomberlin, J.A. (1990). Physical therapy in community re-entry: Assessment and achievement of physical fitness. In: J. S. Kreutzer & P. Wehman (Eds.), Community Integration Following Traumatic Brain Injury. (pp. 29-46). Baltimore, ND; Paul H. Brookes. 

      Inclusion, community integration  ("community and disability") and "sports for all" continues to be a challenge as "racial segregation" (highly paid at televised sports) is even seen as valued (e.g., football, soccer, baseball, basketball), and side-by-side sports, especially by gender (with sports hierarchies) are a common base for competitive endeavours. The Motorsports research reports describe "traditionally male sports" (i.e., auto racing, automobile driving, dirt bikes and motorcycles) and what in disability was termed a disability hero (as the centerpiece woman of NASCAR)!!

      The independent living approaches of the World Institute on Disability represented the comprehensive approach to housing, education, employment, voting/public life, health, "child care and shopping" (businesses), and recreation/arts and culture (See, UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006, 2018; PInterest, Community and Policy Studies, 2012). The 1993 bibliography by Susan Brown still best exemplars this comprehensive "community and disability" approach (integration and independent living).

     The Paralympics (world events) still are often referred to as an elite class which, however, operates separately from the "main or regular Olympics". Thus, as anticipated a "disability culture" or way of understanding the world developed over time (e.g., Brown, 2003) and is centerpieced at the university education schools today. These cultures may mirror the "larger society" (similar competitive approaches in Paralympics) or may be in diverse or antithetical positions (e.g., "ugly is beautiful") to that society. However, disability culture speakers, as often civil rights activists, do expect to be able to travel to their lecture sites, among others.

Biklen, D. (1987, March). The culture of policy: Disability images and their analogues in public policy. Policy Studies Journal, 15(3): 515-565. 

Braunstein, M. (1993/1998). In search of disability culture. In: B. Corbett & J. Dobbs (Eds.), New Mobility Magazine's Spinal Network. Malibu, CA: Marimar Communications.

Brown, S. (1993). An Independent Living Approach to Disability Policy Studies. Oakland, CA: World Institute on Disability. 

Brown, S.E. (2003). Movie Stars and Sensuous Scars: Essays on the Journey from Disability Shame to Disability Pride. NY, NY: People with Disabilities Press. 

Forliti, A. (2000, December). Rules of the road: Women drivers nurtured in racing school. ABC 

Jensen, T. (2000, August). Winning is everything. NASCAR Illustrated, XIX(8): 92-96.

Katz, E. (1994). The national institute of art and disabilities: An art center for adults with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 32(2): 137-140.  Now, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, and Inclusion.

Mirzceff, N. (1997). Blindness and art. In: L. J. David (Ed.), The Disability Studies Reader. (pp. 382-398). NY, NY: Routledge. 

Moylan, N.F. (2001, May). Wheelchair whimseys: Here I am world. Mohawk Valley Women: A Publication For, by and About Women. (p.16).  Rome, NY: Mohawk Valley Media.

Racino, J. (2003). Motorsports Research Series, Reports 1-5.  Rome, NY: Community and Policy Studies. Square Market/Community and Policy Studies.

Rome Art and Community Center. (1997, September 30-October 4). Exceptional Artworks: Events Brochure. Rome, NY: Author. 

Screen Actors' Guild Committee for Performers with Disabilities (2001, May 3). Everything Production Needs to Know When Performers with Disabilities Are Hired. CA: Author. Link to UCPA (United Cerebral Palsy Association) National-Net. 

Thompson, R.G. (1997). Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature. NY, NY: Columbia University Press. 

...(1994). Fodor's great American vacations for travelers with disabilities. Fodor's Travel Publications

Young, D. (1998). The delicate art of flying in a power wheelchair. In: B. Corbett, J. Dobbs, et al. (Eds.), Spinal Network. Malibu, CA: Marimar Communications.

A Bibliography on Recreation, Sports and the Arts was prepared in 2001, and National Parks and Recreation Association has discussed inclusion and inclusion policies. Special Olympics has celebrated its 50th Anniversary, and over four decades of publications since the 1980s are available online and in archives. Medicaid and Medicare as health care reform are current in 2018, and Education has increased its funding in states in the US.

      Current governmental emphasis has been on safety and security within the context of all walks of life, and the Health and Human Services Administration is in proposed reorganization by the current federal administration. Independent living continues to be supported as a framework, and has changed its nature and organization in 2018. Multiple state departmental policies could be involved (e.g, OASAS, Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services, NY), and the newest factors are the corrections fields and its implications.

Julie Ann Racino, Health and Human Services Administration
American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) 2018



Thursday, October 11, 2018

Chapter 14: Community Living: Lessons for Today

Community Living: Lessons for Today


By Steven J. Taylor and Julie Ann Racino
Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York

     Back in 1991, we began: 
       "Over the past 5 years, we have studied community living programs for people with the most severe disabilities- the organizations, the practitioners, the lives of the people with disabilities, the services and supports, and the government and community context. We also have had an opportunity to observe the participation of people with disabilities in the community- their relationships, their associations and activities, and the way in which informal networks and formal systems interact."

      "The most important lesson we have learned is that we continue to learn. As we traveled the country looking at innovative programs and services and working with states and agencies, we found ourselves constantly refining our thinking about community living, revising our assumptions about how communities and states work, and recalling lessons we have previously learned. Let us tell you about some of the lessons as we know them today". 

We continued briefly: On Deinstitutionalization, On Limitations of Services and Service Systems, On Relationships, On Community, On Supports, Not Facilities, On Families and Their Children, On Homes and Support, On Living A Meaningful Life,  On Professionals and Change, On Changing Service Systems, On Government, and On Diversity (pp. 235-238). 

     Now, the final section was on Concepts: "Concepts, ideas and principles that help us get from on place to another. Yet, they must be viewed in historical context. The ideas that guide us today, can mislead us tomorrow. Concepts that should be able to move us beyond where we are today are:
* Community Integration
* Informal Supports
* Friendships
* Self-Determination
* Nonaversives
* Own Homes
* Personal Assistance Services
* Circle of Friends
* Bridgebuilding
* Supported Jobs
* Building Community
* Choices
* Community Participation
* Permanency Planning
* Housing and Supports
* Individualized and Flexible Supports
* Life Sharing

     "Concepts such as normalization, integration, and mainstreaming make sense only in a society where people with disabilities cannot move freely in and out of relationships and participate fully in community. Having those concepts does not mean that we have arrived; it only means that we recognize that people with developmental disabilities have been denied."

     "As times change, there arises a need to find new concepts and ideas suited to those times. We must be prepared to abandon old concepts and find new ones to guide us through the challenges and dilemmas we will undoubtedly face." (p.238).

Taylor, S.J. & Racino, J.A. (1991). Community living: Lessons for today. In: L.H. Meyer, C.A. Peck, L. Brown (Eds.), Critical Issues in the Lives of People with Disabilities (pp. 235-239). Baltimore, MD (Sydney, Australia, London, Great Britain, Toronto, Canada): Paul H. Brookes. 

     Community Living Concepts Today:
A Brief Note

Julie Ann Racino


     In 2018, I attribute a circle of friends to the work of Judith Snow in Canada and the inclusion groups. In fact, the friend might be an owner of a cafe, or a professional service provider. Parents for Positive Futures were instrumental in taking hold of professional supported employment and making it real jobs (e.g., family businesses and future roles).  We thank the community groups in education and community development for their work on bridgebuilding (John Kretzmann, John McKnight, Zana Lutfiyya, Steven Taylor, Robert Bogdan). Believe it or not, the federal government itself followed community integration proposals by community participation proposals for NIDRR centers. L'Arche and lifesharing (e.g., Camphill) continues to be an ideal for religious communities. 

     Supports continue to be popular, including in facilities (e.g., hospitals), as family approaches, and as person-centered planning. Academic contributions on supports were often basic (e.g., instrumental, financial, cultural) but significant (e.g., negative support). In addition, women particularly analyzed the invisible contributions that "made things happen" and resulted in better lives and situations. As was not expected, "individualized and flexible" was often the former, with the latter often flexible for the workers, agencies or management. "Own home" led the way to options other than facility-based planning (e.g., intermediate care facilities, group homes), and housing and support (e.g., supportive living, supported housing, housing and health care) were essential for home and community-based services waivers (demonstrations). Supports became part of the research on social networks.

     Choices and self-determination became hallmarks of "user-directed services", a term associated with personal assistance services. Of course, the latter independent living and "parental voluntary" associations became large service delivery providers, always with the advocacy and community at the front of these organizations. Friendships from "the Strullys" (Jeff and Cindy) curbed the tide of "aversives and punishment" that was pervading the professional domains, and made even the concepts of inclusion possible. Community was thought about from the university sector, and "never really captured" the social networks and relevance of those involved (e.g., even low income of own families). However, community is throughout the literature as the reframing of the "institutional mindset" with professionals on both sides of the river (e.g., David Schwartz, Crossing the River).  

    Permanency planning begins federal law for planning for children, and enters into required professional roles for social workers, and laws on child protection. The hope for family support to replace the framework of "abuse and neglect" became service options and often "removed the families from the judicial neglect and abuse system" through separate systems of workers and community systems. This era marked the UN Rights of the Child which later became supplemented by the rights of parents in societies (current at UN, 2018 at ethnic and cultural minorities); thank you to the National Council on Disability for its successful "completion of this academic track". 

       Community living is prominent today, even more so than in the 1980s, being a federal term at the departmental and legislative levels. And for those of us who know the governments, "be careful what you wish for" still is the case in 2018, especially at the public health-criminal justice-MLTSS interfaces with the essential "education and rehabilitation" foundations of Long Term Services and Supports (LTSS). Independent living and supportive living remain popular terms with family caregiving gaining in ascendancy at the "aging of the baby boomers". 

Racino, J.A. (2014). Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. London, Boca Raton, FL, and NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.