THE ENVIRONMENTAL WARS IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Julie Ann Racino, American Society for Public Administration
Section on the Environment and Natural Resources
In the 21st Century, environmentalists have won one of their greatest global achievements, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. These goals offer leadership within a framework of Sustainable Cities and Communities (Goal 11), Affordable, Clean Energy (Goal 7), Climate Action (Goal 13), and Life Below the Water (Goal 14). We commend the International Assembly of the American Society for Public Administration for promoting these goals in the Annual Conference in Denver, Colorado in March 2018.
In 2015, the American Society for Public Administration (Section on the Environment and Natural Resources Administration) was presented areas of concern on the environment (e.g., environmental toxins near low income housing, worldwide water and sewage disposal, nuclear accidents and contaminants, war injuries, such as Agent Orange in early family studies). In addition, support for climate change initiatives, clean, wind, solar and green energy, innovative partnerships in rural areas with gender equality at land use, and ecotourism with access passes and symbols at hotels and restaurants were cited among the 11 priorities.
Political, Science Context on Climate Change
In September 2014, the Clinton Global Initiatives (CGI) held a plenary session titled: Confronting Climate Change is Good Economics. Twenty percent of the world's population was still without electricity and lights, especially in Asia and Africa. The panel noted the CGI's commitment to Mayor's Climate Action Plan, green infrastructure and the Global Fairness Initiative with new investments in the natural and built environments. The Danish Prime Minister indicated a 40% goal of reduction in CO2 emissions, and an intent to decouple growth from the emission standards. The panel of Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems and the Journal on Ecotourism were recommended.
In August 2014, the United Nation's Foundation met on the Millenium Development Goals which preceeded the SDGs. The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) were measured over 15 years and involved inclusion and gender equality, over 600 million young people under the age of 35 on the African continent, the roles of agriculture (e.g., "hectares to 6 women"), the creation of dynamic and profitable businesses, and the environment and sustainability. Of course, "gender views are class, race and income-based", and the world is viewed through social media as part of established networks. The meeting and discussion took place in New York City with US AID agency from 8:30-10:00 am, Monday, August 18, 2014.
Science of Environmental Justice and Economic Sustainability
Yesterday, Governor Andrew Cuomo-D of New York mentioned the early formation of an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) in New York predating the federal EPA (now being attacked as Republican, anti-environmental, Scott Pruitt). In March 2010, the federal EPA collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, "Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decisionmaking: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts" (American Public Health Association, viewed 3/19/2015).
In 2010, CRC Press (one of my academic publishers) released a new book in its series on Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment: Environmental and Economic Sustainability (Hardisty, 2010). The press on the book highlights the petroleum industry ("fossil fuel energy"), the "intimate relationships" with the environment at "all stages of the life cycle", and economic tools and recent advancements in "valuation of natural resources". As our New York Governor explained, the Adirondack Park established in 1892 is a form of environmental protection and 69,000 new acres were added to the park (Cuomo, May 4, 2018, Youtube). In 1962, New York's first hydroelectric dam was built in conjunction with the environmental movements (Ibid, 2018).
SENRA Report on the Earth World Summit
In December 2015, Julie Ann Racino reported on the World Summit led by UN Secretary General Ba-KiMoon of South Korea and the Climate Change Plan of President Obama's White House. Similar to other global treaties (e.g., international security), the new federal administra-tion under President Donald Trump has not affirmed the prior Executive signatures "of the United States" on international climate change. In part, the Trump Administration has been repeatedly reported ("maligned") as not only anti-environmental and anti-climate change, but also as anti-science of US universities and US leading scientists. "We were pleased at his direct attendance at the subsequent World Summit, and his efforts to frame an agenda that fits the new US administration, 'duly elected' in the US".
In the world history context, we continue to support the International Environmental Programs which are affected by "geopolitical systems changes" and "pollution immigration" as contaminants cross international boundaries (Johnson, 2007, p. 325). Through the decades, we will also note the new 1972 United Nations Environmental Programme, the historic 1992 Environment and Development Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the Conventions on Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, Chemical Safety, and even Persistent Organic Pollutants, another science-identified, global hazard (Ibid, 2007). "We thank President Macron of France, in his historic state visit to the US, for citing the importance of the environment and biodiversity in 2018". And, we also will mention, from our experiences in ASPA Denver 2018, that the transfer of environmental concerns to "college or university" economic and justice groups (e.g., Bacot & Damon, 2000) has been done without the support or knowledge of the American public.
Julie Ann Racino, American Society for Public Administration
SENRA, HHSA, Budget and Finance, 2018
Consultations, Criminal Justice, PA and the Law, ASPA, 2015