Tuesday, June 19, 2018



 Authored by Julie Ann Racino
American Society for Public Administration

June 19, 2018

          In 2018, the University of Minnesota (UMN) reaffirmed its leadership role in the US Direct Support Workforce and People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Other Disabilities in an Issue of IMPACT (Volume 31, No. 1).  The government's "new management" indicates a current workforce crisis termed a "systemic and pervasive failure in the long term services and support system" in the US. The US Senate began a process in 2013 to examine the field of Long Term Care and to introduce the concepts basic to Long Term Services and Supports (LTSS), often within M-LTSS systems of managed care. 

The US Direct Support Workforce, NYS
         In New York State, beginning in the 1970s, we were delighted to be part of the first community group homes in the US, the first state work forces moving into the communities, the first University and Executive Office structures, and the development of new non-profit organizations and their expansion in local communities. Our organizations have mushroomed into NGOs in every state and almost every local community in the US.

        At the time, I was part of opening the state's first community mental health agency, and working with state and local governments to develop planning and review procedures to assure the health and well being of the new residents and the existing community members. And indeed I was among the first to combine the private, non-profit and state, county and local sectors into working groups for the new family support services. Today, the CSEA (government) manager with the notebook on NewsChannel 10 is reminiscent of the first home visits. 

       Over the years, many of the original "programs" became health care funded (Racino, 2015), and for many years bore names such as psychosocial rehabilitation services, independent living and community support services, and even skills (and instrumental skills) of daily living. These schemas were researched, evidence-tested, and were even the base for the WHO (World Health Organization, 1999; WHO, 2013) classification of disabilities. 

Deinstitutionalization and Community Support Workforces

        The world begin to change in response to the exposes of institutions (e.g., Rothman and Rothman's Willowbrook Wars) described in Dr.  Steven J. Taylor's accounts of deinstitutiona-lization in the US (e.g., Taylor & Searl, 1987; Conroy & Bradley, 1985). While most accounts discuss the 1960s exodus, via new drugs, from psychiatric centers in the US, intellectual and developmental disabilities were planned approaches, sometimes with judicial oversight. 

        While the community workforces continued to "simply expect" the traditional federal health care financing (e.g., HCFA) to reform from an old style institutionalized approach, the workforces continued to have strong support from the US Presidents. In 2015, in conjunction with the reform of the IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities) facilities, Julie Ann Racino presented at ASPA in Chicago (2015) on the necessity for further work to target the nursing facility transformation to LTSS (Long-Term Services and Supports). 

       Indeed a worldwide class of deinstitutionalization researchers were created (e.g., K. C. Lakin of the University of Minnesota; David Felce from the University of Cardiff-Wales), and comparisons were made between population in the institutions and individuals in different models or setting types (e.g., group homes and foster care). Julie Ann Racino, Distinguished Lecturer, described the new 21st Century developments at NeCopa (Northeast Conference of Public Administration) in November 2017. 

Professionalization of the Community Workforces

       As most histories report, organizations such as the Arc began in basements and churches in the 1940s, then reached incorporation, and local-state-national status. The 1970s marked a period of negotiations between the state governments and non-profit organizations regarding institu-tionalized classes, not necessarily a priority of organizations such as the Arc. This became apparent later when the Arc was instrumental in removing stipulations on cost neutrality on the new Medicaid waivers making it easier to serve community classes. This party served as an independent broker at state government and non-profit negotiations. 

          Direct Support Professionals (DSPs), a new term for the workers associated with the specific National Alliance, are part of state Chapters from the 1970s and 1980s which called for wage parity with the public sector employees and their established unions. These sectors, by state-e.g., Connecticut, New York), repeatedly requested brokerage to better wages, better benefits, and better hours, working conditions, and professional and academic benefits (e.g., Lensink, State Commissioner, Connecticut; Racino, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration, Syracuse University, 1988). These sectors grew significantly in size, and continue to expand through dedicated legislative funds in states and at the federal levels. Competition in 2018 are reportedly from traditional health care organizations and hospital sectors (organized, union sectors). 

University Education of Community Personnel
        Julie Ann Racino's 2000 book Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life indicates the community support professional levels associated with the community workforces in the 1990s. These models expanded from the traditional medications, goal planning and behavioral interventions of institutional programs, to full scale, inservice programs, preservice and basic to advanced degree programs, continuing education credits, executive education, annual conferences certifications and accreditations, licensing, career ladders, national indicators, testing instruments, and self-advocacy and user-directed approaches. 

       From the beginning, Dr. Robert Bogdan (e.g., Bogdan,  et al, 1974), our university research director, expressed concerns regarding professionalization of the workforce as advanced professional degrees were awarded, advanced research studies were approved, extremely high wages were paid to professionals (e.g., Vecchione home) within a home setting as model demonstrations, and conversely, a live-in, companion model was repeatedly preferred (Jean Vanier of L'Arche) which was never adopted by other than the religious groups. Professionalization (Wilensky, 1964), however, was reported as part of a trend worldwide across professions and fields which continues today (e.g., robotics and modernization).

       Waves of parent-professionals and self advocates were described as the product of these endeavors by the "workforce sectors" (Racino, 2000) which hosted psychologists, social workers, "full state departments and civil service lists", residential agencies, vocational support agencies, housing developments and boards, foster or family care workers, child protective workers, counseling agencies, community services workers, and much more. The community sectors integrated its traditional agencies with new ones, and expanded its force and influence in local communities and worldwide. 

       However, the influence of small homes, family living, intermediate care facilities, vocational and residential training, independent living, and community jobs were among the taken for granted job sites for new workers in the fields (See, p.3 IMPACT, Hewitt, MacBeth, Merrill, & Kleist, 2018). The first entry of the residential classes for adults was cited by Racino in 1990 in a Personnel preparation book (Kaiser & McWhorter, 1990) which was current with the work of Michael Smull of the state of Maryland with US Education's Thomas Bellamy (Smull & Bellamy, 1991) to address the community crisis. These initiatives were followed by family support, home ownership and natural supports approaches in the local communities (e.g., Bradley, Knoll & Agosta, 1992: Hagner, Snow & Klein, 2006). 

The Future

        According to the University of Minnesota's Impact, the struggle to retain, recruit and maintain staff continues in 2018, together with the need for competency-based credentialing. An excellent racial and gender disparities article by Stephen Campbell (Policy research associate, Bronx, New York, 2018) compares the "entry level" direct support workers, nursing assistants, and home care workers; the comparisons are made on the basis of age, educational attainment, employment status, earnings and income, poverty level, public assistance, and health insurance status. The Impact issue also highlights a father with autism spectrum disorder, and confirmed self-directed services in 42 states in 2017. 

         As many of you know, the more likely comparisons are those of the "health care" sector on behavioral assistants and aides (See, Larson, et al, 2014 of UMN in Racino, 2014), and a hierarchy that includes MDs-psychiatry, Ph.Ds and Ed.Ds, and physicians assistants. The management and hierarchies are distinctly managed, and have distinctly different career tracks for workers and management. In particular, the distinctions made in the 1970s and 1980s compared the private and state sectors, or seldom, the "unionized to the non-unionized" sectors (See, changing public employee unions of the future, US, Kearney,  2009). These changes have been effected by the "distinct roles" and "divisions" these sectors have been taking on in the ensuing years of "devolution" (Racino, 2017 in US-UK) and reform of civil service, merit-based systems (e.g., Berry, 2000; Thompson, 2001). 

       According to reports at ASPA (American Society for Public Administration, 2015, Seattle, Washington), the corrections workforces are growing in the US taking a greater share of the personnel pie, and "worker pay" is being requested based on emotional distress. In addition, according to all parties, family caregiving and additional wages for the family to maintain a relative at home, e.g., in "early stages of Alzheimer's" is being advocated for at state legislatures throughout the US (AARP, 2017).  The Direct Support Workforces, organized at the Gubernatorial and Legislative Levels for decades,  has launched new state initiatives from Community Connections Career Partnership in Ohio, to the #beFair2DirectCare Campaign in New York. At the Public Personnel Management levels, workforce diversity (Choi, 2011; Guajardo, 2013) will continue as another governmental focus into the coming decade. 

       American Association of Retired Persons. (2017). AARP Magazine and AARP Bulletin. Washington, DC: Author. 

      Berry, C.R. (2000). Developments in personnel/human resources management in state government. In J. J. Gargan, Handbook of State Government Administration. (pp. 177-219). NY, NY: Marcel Dekker,, Inc. 

       Bogdan, R., Taylor, S., Grandpe, B. & Haunes, S. (1974). Let them eat programs: Attendants' perspectives and programming on state wards in state schools. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 15: 142-151. 

       Bradley, V., Knoll, J. & Agosta, J. (1992). Emerging in Family Support. Washington, DC: AAMR. 

      Campbell, S. (2018). Racial and gender disparities with the direct support workforces. The Direct Support Workforce and People with Intellectual, Developmental and other Disabilities. IMPACT, 31(1): 16-19. 

      Choi, S. (2011). Diversity and representation in the US federal government: Analysis of the trends of the federal employment. Public Personnel Management, 40.1: 1-25. 

      Conroy, J. & Bradley, V. (1985). The Pennhurst Longitudinal Study: A Report of Five Years of Research and Analysis. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Developmental Disabilities Center. 

      Guajardo, S.A. (2013). Workforce diversity: An application of diversity and integration indices to small agencies. Public Personnel Management, 42.1: 1-27. 

       Hagner, D., Snow, J. & Klein, J. (2006). Meaning of homeownership for individuals with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 44; 295-303. 

      Hewitt, A., MacBeth, J., Merrill, B., & Kleist, B. (2018, Winter/Spring). Feature Issue: The Direct Support Workforce and People with Intellectual and Developmental and Other Disabilities. IMPACT, 31(1): 1-52.

      Kaiser, A. & McWhorter, C. (1990). Preparing Personnel to Work with Severe Disabilities. Baltimore, MD; Paul H. Brookes. 

      Kearney, R. (2009). Ch. 11: Public employee union of the future.  Labor Relations in the Public Sector (4th Edition). London, Boca Raton, FL,  and NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor. 

      Larson, S.,A., Sedlezky, L., Hewitt, A., & Blakeway, C. (2014). Community Support Services Workforce in the US. In J. Racino (Ed.), Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US. London, UK and NY, NY: CRC Press. 

     Racino, J.A. (2000). Personnel Preparation in Disability and Community Life. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, Inc.

     Racino, J.A. (2015, March). Increase in Health Care Financing in the Community in the 21st Century. Local Governance Panel: W. Rivenbank and J.A. Racino. Chicago, Illinois: American Society for Public Administration. 

     Racino, J. (2017, November). The State of the Sciences on Deinstitutionalization in the 21st Century. Panel Moderator: Robert Bartlett. Burlington, VT: Northeast Conference on Public Administration. 

     Rothman, D. and Rothman, S.M. (1984). The Willowbrook Wars. NY, NY: Harper & Row. 

     Smull, M. W. and Bellamy, G.W. (1991). Community services for adults with disabilities: Policy challenges in the new support paradigm. In L.H. Meyer, C.A. Peck, and L. Brown (Eds.), Critical Issues in the Lives of People with Severe Disabilities (pp. 527-536). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

      Taylor, S. & Searl, S. (1987). The disabled in America: History, policy and trends. In P. Knobloch, Understanding Exceptional Children and Youth (pp. 50-64). Boston: Little Brown.

      Thompson, J. (2001, June). The civil service under Clinton: The institutional consequences of disaggregation. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 21(2): 87-113. 

      Wilensky, H.L. (1964, September). The professionalization of everyone? The American Journal of Sociology, LXX (2): 137-146. 

      World Health Organization. (1999). International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps. Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva: Author.  

     World Health Organization. (2013). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva: Author. 

Sunday, May 6, 2018



May 2018

Julie Ann Racino, American Society for Public Administration
Section on the Environment and Natural Resources

       In the 21st Century, environmentalists have won one of their greatest global achievements, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations.  These goals offer leadership within a framework of Sustainable Cities and Communities (Goal 11), Affordable, Clean Energy (Goal 7), Climate Action (Goal 13), and Life Below the Water (Goal 14). We commend the International Assembly of the American Society for Public Administration for promoting these goals in the Annual Conference in Denver, Colorado in March 2018. 

      In 2015, the American Society for Public Administration (Section on the Environment and Natural Resources Administration) was presented areas of concern on the environment (e.g., environmental toxins near low income housing, worldwide water and sewage disposal, nuclear accidents and contaminants, war injuries, such as Agent Orange in early family studies). In addition, support for climate change initiatives, clean, wind, solar and green energy, innovative partnerships in rural areas with gender equality at land use, and ecotourism with access passes and symbols at hotels and restaurants were cited among the 11 priorities.

 Political, Science Context on Climate Change

     In September 2014, the Clinton Global Initiatives (CGI) held a plenary session titled: Confronting Climate Change is Good Economics. Twenty percent of the world's population was still without electricity and lights, especially in Asia and Africa. The panel noted the CGI's commitment to Mayor's Climate Action Plan, green infrastructure and the Global Fairness Initiative with new investments in the natural and built environments. The Danish Prime Minister indicated a 40% goal of reduction in CO2 emissions, and an intent to decouple growth from the emission standards. The panel of Intergovernmental Science Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems and the Journal on Ecotourism were recommended. 

     In August 2014, the United Nation's Foundation met on the Millenium Development Goals which preceeded the SDGs. The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) were measured over 15 years and involved inclusion and gender equality, over 600 million young people under the age of 35 on the African continent, the roles of agriculture (e.g., "hectares to 6 women"), the creation of dynamic and profitable businesses, and the environment and sustainability. Of course, "gender views are class, race and income-based", and the world is viewed through social media as part of established networks. The meeting and discussion took place in New York City with US AID agency from 8:30-10:00 am, Monday, August 18, 2014. 

Science of Environmental Justice and Economic Sustainability

     Yesterday, Governor Andrew Cuomo-D of New York mentioned the early formation of an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) in New York predating the federal EPA (now being attacked as Republican, anti-environmental, Scott Pruitt). In March 2010, the federal EPA collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, "Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decisionmaking: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts" (American Public Health Association, viewed 3/19/2015).  

    In 2010, CRC Press (one of my academic publishers) released a new book in its series on Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment: Environmental and Economic Sustainability (Hardisty, 2010). The press on the book highlights the petroleum industry ("fossil fuel energy"), the "intimate relationships" with the environment at "all stages of the life cycle", and economic tools and recent advancements in "valuation of natural resources".  As our New York Governor explained, the Adirondack Park established in 1892 is a form of environmental protection and 69,000 new acres were added to the park (Cuomo, May 4, 2018, Youtube). In 1962, New York's first hydroelectric dam was built in conjunction with the environmental movements (Ibid, 2018). 

SENRA Report on the Earth World Summit

     In December 2015, Julie Ann Racino reported on the World Summit led by UN Secretary General Ba-KiMoon of South Korea and the Climate Change Plan of President Obama's White House. Similar to other global treaties (e.g., international security), the new federal administra-tion under President Donald Trump has not affirmed the prior Executive signatures "of the United States" on international climate change.  In part, the Trump Administration has been repeatedly reported ("maligned") as not only anti-environmental and anti-climate change, but also as anti-science of US universities and US leading scientists. "We were pleased at his direct attendance at the subsequent World Summit, and his efforts to frame an agenda that fits the new US administration, 'duly elected' in the US". 

     In the world history context, we continue to support the International Environmental Programs which are affected by "geopolitical systems changes" and "pollution immigration" as contaminants cross international boundaries (Johnson, 2007, p. 325). Through the decades, we will also note the new 1972 United Nations Environmental Programme, the historic 1992 Environment and Development Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the Conventions on Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, Chemical Safety, and even Persistent Organic Pollutants, another science-identified, global hazard (Ibid, 2007). "We thank President Macron of France, in his historic state visit to the US, for citing the importance of the environment and biodiversity in 2018". And, we also will mention, from our experiences in ASPA Denver 2018, that the transfer of environmental concerns to "college or university" economic and justice groups (e.g., Bacot & Damon, 2000) has been done without the support or knowledge of the American public. 

Julie Ann Racino, American Society for Public Administration
SENRA, HHSA, Budget and Finance, 2018
Consultations, Criminal Justice, PA and the Law, ASPA, 2015

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Health and Human Services Administration Endorses 20 Panels at ASPA Denver 2018

Health and Human Services Administration (HHSA) Section Endorsements of ASPA Panels

        Julie Ann Racino, ASPA 2017-2018 Health and Human Services Executive Committee, visited three panels endorsed by HHSA on Friday, March 9, 2018. ASPA Committee Chair Alexander Henderson of Long Island University served as reviewer on the selection of the panels for the Annual Conference held in Denver, Colorado. 

       The first panel was titled Local Government: Policy Challenges and Solutions and was co-endorsed by the Section on Intergovernmental Administration and Management. Bakry Elmedni of Long Island University stunned this reviewer on the Flint Water Crisis as an arrest of 9 Michigan officials, including criminal manslaughter charges. In addition, the Detroit Water and Sewer Department was "transferred" to the Karagandi Water Authority under a now "often used provision" of emergency management in governments. The second presentation continued to Flint's revenue problems involving "mass bill collection", liens on houses, and declining cities. 

       The third speaker discussed social equity as voting patterns and turnouts in states, and noted "extreme policy positions" at the elections. Voting by "people of color" was disproportionately weak with "the homeless excluded from voting" by lack of state-issued ids. The speaker cited 13 closed primary states in the US., and a drop of 35% of the Democratic party between 2012-2016. The fourth speaker cited the book Just Cities (2011) and a proposed 2013 Neighborhood Park Alliance in New York and Portland, Oregon. "Fund transfers" were discussed as 9 programs, $130 million for 35 underserved parks (Parks Equity Framework), and reallocation of 1/3rd of funds through another Parent Equity Fund

       The second panel was titled Practical Advice for Supporting and Promoting LGBTQIA Social Equity in Public Administration and was held from 1:15 to 2:45 pm in Mineral Hall G at the Hyatt Regency. The LGBT Section was newly endorsed by ASPA, while the PA and Disability Section held three meetings in three US cities (Chicago, IL; Seattle, WA; and Atlanta, GA). The presenta-tion was also endorsed by the Sections on Women in Public Administration, Democracy and Social Justice and Ethics and Integrity in Governance. 

        The Health and Human Service Executive (who has "astronomical health care costs" and a national crisis at universal health care) learned for the first time of "gay police associations" in San Diego, Gay Officers Action League in New York City, Committees of Police Societies, Queer/Radical Associations, and a chart of expansion of "specialized police associations" in the US.  The third speaker discussed the state of transgender-inclusive policy in 365 municipalities and all 50 states using HRC's State of Equality Index (2016). "Areas involved are foster care, hate crimes, housing, adoption, education, employment, and public accommodation". The fourth speaker indicated that the New Orleans Police Department was charged for "failing to provide critical policing services to language minority communities".
        The third panel was titled Public Health Challenges in the 21st Century, and was co-endorsed by the Sections on Democracy and Social Justice and Intergovernmental Administration and Management. The program brochure indicates the following: William Swaim (Moderator, CoAuthor), Vanessa Fenley (Presenter), Anita Larson, Emily Brixey, Iseul Choi, Terri Schreiber, Changsoo Song, Mindy Anderson-Knott, Mark Davis, J. Ramon Gil-Garica, Jennifer Rott, and Wayne Wohler. Represented were the University of Colorado at Denver, University of New York at Albany, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, "Opiods and Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs" in Pennsylvania, Denver, CO and an Education Program by the Minnesota Department of Education. 

       Six of the above speakers presented and according to the subsequent question and answer period, none of the speakers are involved with public health's designated "Traumatic Brain Injury" (US Congressional-US states point of responsibility). The urban sustainability and public health nexus addressed chronic health and GHG emissions (e.g., asthma, COPD, heart disease) and physical activity (walkability, built environment), based upon 500 cities (174 city sample, 32 states) and 6 indices from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) data sets. The second speaker discussed "citizens decision making on selecting health care plans" and perceived performance and satisfaction measures. 

       Private consulting on opiods was highlighted with liberal Colorado politics, a "Coordinating Center at the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy", public surveillaince tools with data analytic software (e.g., NarxCare, OpiSafe), and licensing fees. A presentation on minority health disparities concentrated on underage drinking before age 13 (grades 5-12) with comparisons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations, and white and non-white populations. The SAMHSA (federal, mental health and substance abuse) study focused on one Nebraska County, and the research methodologies involved fidelity checks and ANCOVA statistical analyses on race and ethnicity regarding "school education program" to "prevent or stop alcohol use". 

      The final speaker from the Minnesota Education Department (who has a DPA) discussed MN's growing together pilot involving 80% of moms working outside the home, and early intervention and early childhood programs. MN is part of the University of Chicago School Research Consortium in 2018. "An expensive, integrated data systems for early childhood collection" is required and is now available to answer "all policy questions"!

Julie Ann Racino, "Selected Friday Panels Endorsed by Health and Human Services Administration, 2018"                                                    Posted on 3/14/2018


Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Public Administration and Disability Or What Happened to Disability Public Policy?


   Julie Ann Racino
Member, Health and Human Services, and Budget and Finance
American Society for Public Administration 

March 2018

        In 2015, the American Society for Public Administration began a process to inform it membership of the multi-decade efforts to reform institutional to community-based (CBOs) organizations in the US and worldwide. A formation Section on Public Administration and Disability, as an addition to the existing ASPA Chapters and Sections, proposed a series of goals for review by its membership which are highlighted here:

Health and Human Service Goals

1. Disability and Ethnic NGOs and Their Status
2. Academic Education Programs in Public Administration and Disability 
versus Public Health and Management
3. Human Services to Community Health or Dual Transitions at Managed Care
/HealthCare Marketplace
4. Individual, Family and Community Health: One Health Concept vs. 
Behavioral Health Care

Brief Findings:
I. Disability and ethnic NGOs (e.g., the Arc-US, Hispanic Action League) are separate entities and have expanded in the US and worldwide; ASPA's university public administration departments claim to be primarily the latter, as highlighted by Virginia Commonwealth University's Susan Gooden. ASPA PA departments may be accredited to offer both public administration (MPA) and public health (MPH) degrees. 

II. Managed Care is operational in the US, and is not necessarily a preferred management by those governments wishing to achieve universal health care (e.g., health care marketplaces). Managed Long Term Services and Supports (MLTSS) is not the same as LTSS (Long Term Services and Supports). 

III. ASPA's Journal of Health and Human Services Administration published an ecological concept of community in line with individual, family and community health, but the expansion of government funds is heavily behavioral health care. The concern with the latter is its use with involuntary care and its expansion in US and globally. 

Environmental Goals
1. Conversion to Green and Sustainable Government and Contracting Agencies
2. Support of Global Change and Local Environmental Concerns
3. Prevention, Health Promotion, Resiliency, Community Support and Wellness

Brief Findings:
I. ASPA Annual Conference presentations in 2016 and 2017 highlighted sustainability in community and economic development, and ASPA held sessions for its personnel on rules in government contract and procurement. Local and State Government Review held ASPA presentation and discussion sessions.

II. The PA Times in 2017 highlighted by ASPA president Alan Rosenbaum, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the contributions of public administration toward a better environment and world. 

III. A resurgence of the concept of resiliency ("bounceback"), new institutes in health promotion, and prevention in the traditional public health concepts (e.g., "tobacco cessation", "disease eradication") were still the most popular concepts with alternative medicine (e.g., "wellness" through yoga, fitness, health bonuses for healthy habits) and community support (at NGO woman CEOs) being overshadowed by other concerns such as community policing in the 21st century.

Budget and Finance Goals
1. Health Care and Community Financing
2. State Categorical Service Systems, Government Personnel, and Contracting
3. Governmental Programs: Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security and Social Security Disability
4. Individual and Family, Consumer-Controlled Budgets

Brief Findings:
I. Julie Ann Racino presented at the 2015 ASPA Annual Conference on Health Care Financing and its Growth in the Community (with William Rivenbank). Presentations of Employment First and its Relationship to Cultural Diversity were held with Sanjay Panday and ASPA universities by Allan Bergman and Julie Ann Racino in Seattle, Washington.

II. ASPA highlighted the federal departments with the new US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare visible as a governmental administration. The federal government itself has been entertaining proposals to privatize Medicaid and Medicare (not advised by this party; similar proposals to privatize jails and prison systems) and a new Supplement on Medicaid and Medicare was published in Public Administration Review

III. Cash for Care (privatization health care schemes) international edited book is now available, in addition to books on direct payments, family policies worldwide, encyclopedia entries in direct payments and user-directed personal assistance, new person-directed conversion plans in Europe and Australia, and laws in Europe on employment support allowances (the latter reported as newly attacked by the elective governments). 

IV. Association for Budgeting and Management (ABFM) is affiliated with ASPA and holds its own Annual Conference with a community orientation to the budget and personnel; the definition of community is the "pre-1970s" one which includes 100-bed private, nursing facilities (no, at forced hospitalization), new assisted living on private, non-profit campuses, "side by side buildings" (educational facilities in disability), rehabilitation and correctional facilities as community.  

V. New US Personnel Administration book by ASPA members which updates through the President Barack Obama federal administration. Literature reviews indicated earlier federal outsourcing as part of federal downsizing and major changes in the US and state civil service systems (public servants).  

Inclusion and Empowerment Goals
1. United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) now cojoined with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (2018, UN debates)
2. Deinstitutionalization, Smart Growth, and Community Development
3. Community Participation, Inclusion and Empowerment: Principles and Theories of Families, Independent and Supportive Living, Person-Centered and Employment First

Brief Findings:
I. United Nations, located in New York City, continues to be a hotbed of international action with the new administration and its US Ambassador at the UN Security Council (devastating war in Syria, landmines in Ukraine), human rights reviews by international bodies, International Day of Persons with Disabilities (and UN disability groups), and Ministerial Leadership Speeches, Votes and Actions from the environment to "new world visions" (from the world order, now UN web tv).

II. Julie Ann Racino presented at NeCopa on the State of the Science in Deinstitutionalization in 2017, US-UK relationships in government and public policy, and Community Integration and Inclusion Studies over 40 years (courtesy, leadership Douglas Biklen and the Center on Human Policy, Schools of Education). Mathematica, a private research firm, indicated plans in 2016 for reallocation of community financing varying from the US State of the States in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Braddock, Hemp, et al, 2015).

III. Smart growth and transportation with Transportation America, and Policy Link (excellent, ethnic base, national conferences) represent new national organizations that are represented in America's new urban growth, in the development of modernization of transportation infrastructure, and in plans for pedestrian and bike trails to curb the automobile pollution in the US. Housing panels were featured in Atlanta, Georgia and Seattle, Washington with new government initiatives to address escalating housing costs, support services and homelessness.

IV.  President Barack Obama began the National Institute on Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) in the US Department of Health and Human Services Administration in Department of Community Living. Other national institutes, such as those in US Department of Education (e.g., National Institute on Disability Research and Rehabilitation) or US DHHS (e.g., National Institute on Mental Health) continue to provide leadership for national initiatives.

Personnel Goals
1. Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act
2. Development of the US Direct Professional Workforce for the Government Sectors (and Non-and-For-Profit)
3. Meeting Direct Service Needs of Individuals and Families (e.g., Support and Respite Aides,  Specialized Child Care)

Brief Findings:
I. The education and disability systems are very actively involved with passage of current laws and funding opportunities (e.g., President Barack Obama and funding for housing and HIV-AIDS); on the 1970s standards, ASPA itself (and the court systems themselves) is out of compliance on integration standards (e.g., active Architectural Access Compliance Board). Historic videos online (C-SPAN-3) on the Education of Handicapped Children's Act of 1974 with Judith Heumann, cofounder of World Institute on Disability (See, Joan Leon, 2018). 

II. New efforts to address the US telephone relay system for the deaf and hard of hearing, and taken-for-granted hearing exams for "newborns"; and to make available expanded opportunities for individuals with blindness (including US taken-for-granted cataract surgery which easily and effectively corrects partial blindness). Health care plans on state exchanges may also be packages for cancer treatments or HIV-AIDS planning.

II. The US Direct Professional Workforce (Racino, 2000; Larson et al, 2012) "exited again" as "multiple nationals" intellectual and developmental disabilities, separating from an integrated workforce across state departments and voluntary associations. CCD (Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities) still represents mixed voluntary associations in Washington, DC (e.g., now Autism and Family Support). ASPA members Julie Ann Racino, Allan Bergman, and National Council Members Andrea Huston and Stephen Rolandi were given the prison reform in intellectual and developmental disabilities in 2017. 

III. The new "Behavioral Health Care" became the new term for the personnel related to "substance abuse and mental health" (SA/MH), one of 9 categories of "behavioral health practitioners" (new management groups). Sherri Larson was a behavioral aide early in her own career (Larson in Racino, 2014), and my colleague K. Charlie Lakin's (Lakin & Racino, 1990) IMPACT is based upon the generic "Support and Inclusion Workforces" of Syracuse University with "behavioral multi-decade overlays" in other journals (University of Minnesota). 

IV. More information forthcoming with a major concern its relationship to mass incarceration and growth in corrections workforces and increased budgets devoted to these sectors (being transferred to criminal justice control -"Education reporting"). For example, yesterday (March 5, 2017), new NYS penal law revisions "effective immediately" with televised coverage and "no laws to the viewers". 

V. Thank you for the new books in 2012 (e.g., Carl Dunst and George Singer, our colleagues from the 1980s science centers and universities) and articles (e.g., Chris Hatton, UK on respite; Sherri Larson on specialized aides) which described early childhood, early intervention, early family support, user-directed  services, "federal approved" aides, and family approaches to young children and their futures. 

VI. Schools of Education continue to operate separately from Schools of Public Administration for the most part, for example awarding dual inclusion education degrees (with allowances for work in mental health, private practices). 

Public Policy and Disability Goals
1. Comprehensive and transparent public policy and public policy and human development
2. Development of public administration and disability workforces in the community
3. Public administration and disability: Comparative approaches in the international sector

Brief Findings:
I. Transparency was a primary goal of the Obama Administration, and human development, a hallmark of the Urie Brofenbrenner age has now a new mental health and corrections education "cohort" of Ph.D.s and MDs (e.g., School of Human Ecology, Cornell Weil Medical Center in New York) together with a new undergraduate psychology (e.g., decade of the brain). Thank you to John Eckenrode, immediate past Director and Pat Thayer of the Urie Brofenbrenner Translational Center. 

II. ASPA will continue with leadership in non-profit governance which will affect the future of other non-profit industries in the US and globally, and vice versa. The roles of governments will continue to change in a post-911 era in which defense budgets have escalated over health and human services, with the latter also escalating beyond the budgets of Americans. ASPA does not have a workforce termed disability per se or for that matter, public administration and rehabilitation, though the US Direct Support Workforce (Larson, et al, 2014 in Racino, 2014; Brandt to Trump, 2018) falls under the Nonprofit Governance Section, "Women in Government", Science and Technology, Minority Administration, and Health and Human Services Administration.

III. International sectors and associations continue to be "robust sectors of the economies" and will continue to develop as a distinct sector "from or as governments" in the coming decades. The third sector voluntaries, became literature prominent and include expansive growth in "gender organizations and goals" which are reaching tipping points in personnel in the 21st century. 

IV. State departments are seldom addressed in the literature, other than as one department (e.g., NYS Office of People with Developmental Disabilities); and state departments tend to keep their own reports and archives in government. Federal departments and their reorganizations continued to be reviewed in 2017 (Racino, NeCopa, 2017, e.g., "partial reorganization" of HEW to US DHHS) with an organizational chart describing Administration on Children and Families in Racino, 2014.  Julie Ann Racino offers an introduction in her book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US (Racino, 2014) at http://www.crcpress.com/authors.

For more information, please feel free to contact Julie Ann Racino, via ASPA in Washington, DC at the Main Office, 1730 Rhode Island Ave., NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036; the author resides in Rome, New York. 

Monday, February 26, 2018

American Society for Public Administration Meets in Denver in March 2018

American Society for Public Administration: 
Civil Societies and Their Futures in America

Julie Ann Racino, February 2018

       The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) is a leading society which represents the changing demographics in America and in government in the 20th and 21st Century. The Society will be meeting in Denver, Colorado from March 9-13th, 2018!

       The society often represents university programs, the federal, state and local governments, the growing non-profit sectors, and "business sectors" in public-private partnerships and community engagement. The full Annual Conference Agenda is available online at aspanet.org and photos will be available on facebook!

       Public administration, still young at 100, has historically represented the "public service in America" which obviously has shifted as the Presidents, Governors and Mayors have changed together with "Civil Service" in America. The Annual Meeting, which includes business, chapter and leadership meetings, will explore the status today and in the future.

Health and Human Services Administration

       One of the most pressing challenges in America today is health care, both on polls about priorities and on the "debates" between Republicans and Democrats. The efforts to achieve "universal health care" and "the right to heath care" have often been met by the "escalation in the costs to taxpayers", the elimination of health care for particular individuals or groups (remember, blue eyes next!),  and the "expansion of Medicaid" to services that Americans do not "want or need"!! 

      The Health and Human Services Administration Section will meet at ASPA on Saturday morning March 10, 2018.  Circulated on February 21, 2018 to HHSA Executive were:
1. Current Status of Health Care in the US: Update from President Obama and Affordable Care Act to Present Administrations  (e.g., New York Democratic Governor Cuomo*)
2.  State Health Care Exchanges (Special Populations)

3. US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare***, and User-Directed Options (Racino, 2014)
4. Universal Health Care or Medicare for All**

5. Status of Cash for Care Schemes (Racino, 2014) and Health Care Transitions (Budget and Personnel)
6. International Right to Health Care (International, 2016)

7. Long Term Services and Supports (LTSS)****: Service Delivery Transformations (Racino, 2014) with Housing, Support and Health
8. Federal Department of Health and Human Services Administration, Administration on Children and Families

9. US Direct Support Workforce and Services for Families, Children and Adults in Homes and Communities
10. National Institute on Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research

11. Gun Control and Mental Health Care "in Light of Current Tragedies"
12. National Institute on Health, Behavioral Clinical Trials, and Behavioral Health Care, 2016-2017
13. New Opiod Epidemic and Federal-State-Local Implications (e.g., Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, US Senate, 2018)

14. Budgets and Health and Human Services in Context of Debt Management and Worldwide NGO Growth

*Circulated as Donald Trump, US President  ("Eliminated the individual mandate!")
** Bernie Sanders as Medicare for All in Hillary Clinton Campaigns
***Behavioral Management Online (See, Racino, 2000)
****Managed Long Term Services and Supports (not the LTSS list) (Racino, 2014) with Smith and Racino (for "Gettings and Taylor") at federal CSLA (evaluated by Lakin & Burwell Health Care Financing, 1999).

Friday, January 12, 2018


Advanced Courses in Public Administration and Disability

Supported and Affordable Housing: 
Toward Inclusive, Equitable and Sustainable Communities

Posted: (c) 2013, January 12, 2018

Julie Ann Racino, Cornell University and Syracuse University
Community and Policy Studies 


Fall Semester 2018

Class 1: Introduction to the Course, including Assignments and Syllabus
  • Introduction to Disability Policy and the Universalizing of Public Policy
  • Housing for All and the Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Inclusive, Sustainable and Equitable Communities

Class 2: Housing and Support Status in Disability in the US
  • Deinstitutionalization, Transinstitutionalization and History of Congregate Facilities
  • Community Support and Independent Living Movements in US
  • Trends and Milestones in Community Services (e.g., Smaller Homes, Homeownership,      Families and Employment)
  • Public and Low Income Housing vs. Mixed Income Housing Approaches
  • Housing and Community and Economic Development
  • Sustainable, Equitable and Inclusive US Developments
Class 3: Service System Delivery: Disability and Aging Systems in the US   
  • Categorical Service Delivery by State Departments and Unified Housing  Departments    
  • Unified Aging System Exclusive of Disability at Younger Ages
  • Housing, Public Health and Social Services Departments
  • Facility-Based Service Delivery Systems in Disability to Decategorizing, Debundling, Braiding and Service Packages
  • Categorical Service Delivery by State Departments and Unified Housing Departments

Class 4: New Approaches to Community Supported Housing in the US
Compared to New and Older Health Facility Approaches
From intermediate care facilities to institutional reclassification, assisted living facilities, nursing facilities, and rehabilitation facilities; home health care and personal assistance services; visiting nurses and practitioner programs; speech, communication, physical and occupational therapy, medication management, behavioral health services; case management

Service Typologies, Continuum Critique, and Olmstead Most Integrated Standard
From group homes to apartments and home services, supported housing and supportive living,      independent living, cooperative apartments and associations, and villages and retirements communities; user-directed approaches and community service options; family support and education; after school activities; transitional housing; integrated apartment clusters
Class 5: Housing and Support: The Ideal Proposed in the 1990s  
  • Person-Centered Plans and Support Services (see, also, Great Britain)
  • US Demonstrations on Money Follows the Person
  • Family Cash Subsidies and Consumer-Controlled Budgets
  • Choice, Empowerment and Self-Determination- The Basics: Selection of Own Home,  Providers or Assistants, Portable Services
  • Disability Categorical, Community Support, and Housing State and Local Planning
  • ADA and Accessible Housing, Assistive Technology and Accommodations       

Status in US Policy and in Europe: Developing Countries and Families
Class 6: Home Ownership and Rental in the US 
  • Harvard Joint Center on Housing and Public Policy and the National Council on Disability: State of the Nation's Housing
  • Housing, Affordability, Housing Cost Burdens and Worst Case Housing Scenarios
  • Local Communities and Public Housing, Home Ownership Program
  • Role of Nonprofits in Housing: e.g., The Case of HELP
  • Federal, State and Local Roles, including Poverty and Community Building
  • Special Populations and Housing (e.g., HIV-AIDS, psychiatric disabilities, criminal backgrounds)
  • Home ownership, Income integration, income disparities, and neighborhoods          

International: Home and Land Ownership and the Status of Women
Class 7: Mid-Year Class Assignments

Class 8: Financing of Housing and Support in Disability
  • Community and Development Block Grants
  • Community Development Corporations
  • Corporations for Supported Housing 
  • Commission on Affordable Housing and Health Facilities 
  • Housing Financing: Low income tax credit, National Housing Trust Fund, tax      exempt bond financing, mortgage tax credit, housing choice vouchers, Section 8 construction, rehabilitation section 515, delinquent property tax collections
  • Support Services Financing/Social Services Financing
  • Health Care Financing (e.g., Home and Community-Based Medicaid Waivers)

General Accountability Office, USA, 23 new reported programs

Class 9: Residential Segregation, Fair Housing and Discrimination
  • Literature on Residential Segregation, Fair Housing and Discrimination in Housing 
  • Fair Housing Laws and Discrimination: Landlords Tenants, Developers

Disability: Fair Housing
  • Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Section 109 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974
  • Architectural Barriers Act of 1968
  • Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 503 and 504)
  • Title IX of the Education Amendment Act of 1972      

Class 10: Inclusive Communities: Asset and Capacity-Based Approaches to Community Development
  • John McKnight, Northwestern University, and Studies in Neighborhood, Residential  and Housing Integration
  •  Inclusionary Zoning in the US (Department of Housing Preservation and Development)
  •  History of Site Selection in New York State and US
  •  Housing Integration in the US, Inclusion and Democracies, and New Gated Communities
  •  Sustainability and Green Initiatives in Housing, Transportation and Equity
  •  Worldwide Residential Segregation Studies of Cities: Waves of Immigration & Housing  
  •  Capacity-Building and Social Networks in  Local Communities and Neighborhoods  (also, Negative Support)

Class 11: Housing Alliances and Coalitions: Legislation, Regulations, Financing, State and Localities
  •  Governmental Focused Alliances: Partnership for Sustainable Communities, US, 2012
  •  Government Officials - e.g.,National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials
  •  New Groups: Housing and Support Alliance, Great Britain, 2012
  •  Community Groups and Processes: Community Development Plans
  •  Longstanding Coalitions: Low Income or Affordability Coalitions
  •  Categorical Coalitions for Housing: National AIDS Coalition 

Class 12: Quality and Evaluation of Housing and Support in US
  • Quality Indicators in Housing and Services, National-USA
  • Annual Housing Reporting and Statistics: US Housing and Urban Development Department
  • Household Surveys, Disability Surveys, and State, Federal and Local Evaluations
  • Real Estate and Housing Construction Industries

Class 13: Housing Laws in the US and their Administration

          Partial List of Applicable Laws: Joint with School of Law
          1949 Housing Act, Housing Act of 1959
          1974 Housing and Community Development Act
          1986 Tax Reform Act
          1990 Cranston-Gonzalez Affordable Housing Act
          1990 National Affordable Housing Act
          1994 Continuum of Care and Homeless Funding
          1998 Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act
          2000 Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act
          2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
          2009 Obama: Helping Families Save their Homes Act
          2009 Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act
          2010 Frank Mellville Supported Housing Investment Act
Class 14: Class Papers
Report on Class Projects and Final Paper Submission


Allard, M. (1996). Supported living policies and programs in the USA. In: J. Mansell & K. Ericsson, Deinstitutionalization and community living. London: Chapman & Hall. 

Allen, M. (2004, March). Just like where you and I live: Integrated housing options for people with mental illness. Washington, DC: Bazelon Mental Health Center. 

Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990, PL 101-336, 42 USC, Section 12101 et seq., 2008 Amendments

Anthony, W.A., Cohen, M., Farkas, M., & Gagne, C. (2002). Service systems. Psychiatric rehabilitation, 231-270. Boston, MA: Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Trustees of Boston University. 

Biklen, D. (1991). Small homes. In: S. Taylor, R. Bogdan, & J. Racino, Life in the community: Organizations supporting people with disabilities. (pp. 94-104). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Boss, P., Doherty, W., LaRossa, R., Schumm, W.R., & Steinmetz, S.K. (2004/2009). Sourcebook of family theory and methods: A contextual approach. NY, NY: Springer.

Braddock, D., Hemp, R., & Rizzolo, M. (2008). Supportive living, family support, personal assistance assistance and supported employment. State of the states in developmental disabilities. Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Bratt, R.G. (2012). Homeownership policy in the US. In: R. Ronald & M. Elisinga, Beyond homeownership: Housing, welfare and society, 130-145. London: Routledge.

Carling, P. (1992). Housing, community, support and homelessness: Emerging policy in mental health systems. New England Journal of Public Policy, 8(1): 281-295. 

Carr, J.H. & Kutty, N.K. (2008). Segregation: The rising costs for America. NY, NY: Routledge. 

Carvelli, A. (2016, February 16). Letter to County Executive Anthony Picente from Commissioner of Finance on delinquent property tax collections. Utica, NY: Oneida County Offices, County Legislative Chambers.

Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities. (2012). Housing task force: Final report 2012. Washington, DC: Author. 

Cuomo, A. (2014). Chapter 3: HELP.  In:  A.M. Cuomo, All things possible: Setbacks and successes in politics and life  (pp. 80-136). NY, NY: Harper Collins Publishers. 

Galbraith, S.A. (1999). A home of one's own: what housing and social services can do to afford people the dignity and supports for personal housing. Washington, DC: President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Administration on Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services. 

Habitat for Humanity. (2012). International housing statistics and research. Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved in October 2012 from:

Hagner, D. & Klein, J. (2005). Home ownership for individuals with disabilities. Journal of Disability Public Policy Studies, 15(4): 194-200.

Hemingway, L. (2011). Disabled people and housing: Choices, opportunities and barriers. Bristol, UK: Policy Press, University of Bristol.

Herbert, C.E, Belsky, E.S., & Apgar, W. (2012). Critical housing finance: Challenges for policy makers: Defining a research agenda. Boston, MA: Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University. 

Hernandez, B., Balcazar, F., Keys, C. Hidalgo, M. & Rosen, J. (2006, Autumn). Taking it to the streets: Ethnic minorities with disabilities seek community inclusion. Community Development: Journal of Community Development, 37(3): 4-25. 

Kretzman, J. & McKnight, J. (1993/2005). Discovering community power: A guide to utilizing local assets and your organizations's capacity. Evanston, IL: Asset-Based Community Development Institute, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University. 

Lakin, K.C. & Stancliffe, R. (2007). Residential supports for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Reviews, 13: 151-159. 

Mace, R. (2001). Dedication to Ron Mace. In: W. Preiser & E. Ostroff, Universal design handbook, iii. NY, NY: McGraw Hill. 

Massey, D., Condura, G.A. , & Denton, M.A. (1987). The effect of residential segregation on black social an economic well being. Social Forces, 66: 29-56. 

National Council on Disability. (2010). State of housing in America: A disability perspective. Washington, DC: Author. 

O'Brien, J. & O'Brien, C. (1994). More than a new address: Images of supported living agencies. In: V. Bradley, J. Ashbaugh, & B. Blaney, Creating individual supports for people with developmental disabilities. (pp. 109-140). Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

O'Hara, A. & Day, J. (2001). Olmstead and supportive housing: A vision of the future. Washington, DC: Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc. 

Pynoos, J., Feldman, P., & Ahrens, J. (2004). Linking housing and services for older adults: Obstacles, options and opportunities. London: The Haworth Press. 

Racino, J. (2013). Housing and disability: Toward inclusive, equitable and sustainable communities. Public administration and disability: Community services administration in the US. (pp. 123-156). NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor. 

Racino, J., Walker, P., O'Connor, S., & Taylor, S. (1993). Housing, support and community. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Rogers, E.S., Farkas, M., Anthony, W.A., Kash, M., Harding, M., & Oschewski, A. (2008). A systematic review of the supported housing literature, 1993-2008. Boston, MA: Center for Psychatric Rehabiltaiton, Boston University. 

Schwartz, A. (2006). Housing policy in the US (2nd edition). NY, NY and London: Routledge. 

Seekins, T. (2006). Introduction: Disability and community development. Community Development, 37(3): 1-3. 

Targett, P.S. & Smith, M.C. (2009). Living in the community. In: P. Wehman & M. Smith, Autism and transition to adulthood. (pp. 233-250). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. 

Technical Assistance Collaborative. (2012). Resource Center on Supported Housing. Boston, MA: Author. 

Turner, M.A., Herbig, C., Kaye, D., Fenderson, J., & Levy, L. (2005, June). Discrimination against persons with disabilities: Barriers at every step. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. 

US Housing and Urban Development. (2007). Estimated assisted housing parameters using American housing survey data. US Housing Market Conditions, 5-12. 

Walker, P. (1991). Anything's possible. Project Rescue, Georgia. In: S.Taylor, R., Bogdan, & J. Racino (Eds.), Life in the Community: Case Studies of Organizations Supporting People with Disabilities (pp. 171-183). Toronto, Canada, NY, NY, and Sydney, Australia: Paul H. Brookes.

Watson, S. (1986). Women and housing or feminist housing analysis? Housing Studies, 1(1): 1-10. 

Zola, I. (1989). Toward the necessary universalizing of disability policy. Milbank Quarterly, 67 (Supplement 2 Part 2), 401-428. 

Additional references available upon request. Also, see, wikipedia, supportive living, supported housing, family support and community integration in addition to housing and housing policies.

Monday, January 1, 2018


American Society for Public Administration

Award Nominee 

The Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities, representing 100 voluntary organizations, was founded in 1973. CCD is the largest coalition of national organizations working together to advocate for federal public policy that supports self-determination, independence, empowerment, integration, and inclusion of children and adults with disabilities in all aspects of society. 

Founding Executive Director
Paul Marchand, Arc-US

Governmental Affairs, Public Policy
 Marty Ford, Arc-US

Currrent Task Forces: In 2017, CCD hosts the following working taskforces and sections with additional information on its website: Developmental Disabilities, Autism and Family Support, Education, Employment Training, Financial Security, Health and Housing, Long Term Services and Supports, Regulation and Reform, Rights, Social Security, Technology and Telecommunications, Poverty and TANF, Transportaiton and Veterans.  The task forces actively engage iin current proposed legislation and its effects on individuals with disabilities and their families, and in proposing national leadership directions to federal levels. 

Nominating Statement of Julie Ann Racino
Member, American Society for Public Administration 

The Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities (CCD) supports federal policies for the Nation's 
Science Centers in Disability, for advocacy and empowerment organizations, for critical policies 
for local communities and financial security, and to address the governmental affairs at the 
federal-state levels which range from the US Congress to Executive Departments, and the federal, national policy and research initiatives.

The nominating party was pleased to meet with Paul Marchand and Marty Ford in Washington, DC as part of the Task Force structurres of CCD in areas ranging from health, housing, and long-term sevices and suupports. All task force members representing diverse constituencies (e.g., mental health/illness, traumatic brain injuries, learning disabilities, deaf blindness, independent living) worked diligently to collaborate on shared, coherent public policies in the "true tradition" of public administration. 

This nominating party also worked individually in states in the US with members of the Association of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities (Current Chair) as "the Center on Human Policy, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration". Current contact (CCD liaison) for these Centers is Kim Musheno, Current Chairperson, Association of Univeristy Centers of Excellence in Developmental Disabilities, 1825 K Street, NW. Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20006 (202-783-2229 and 202-534-3731).

Selected Resume (Award Acceptance): Marty Ford, Arc-US
Marty Ford is Senior Executive for ove 30 years for the Arc-US offering leadership in public policy.  The Arc-US indicates that Marty Ford served as Chairperson of the Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities for three years and currently serves as Co-Chair of the Task Force for Financial Security. Marty Ford servies on the Board of the National Academy of Social Insurance and has served on the American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging. 

Marty Ford is a staunch supporter of community services, quality health care, and income security for individuals with disabilties, families and seniors.  As part of the Arc-US Executive Team, she led the way in community development throughout the US, more populatly known  in the 1980s as group homes (e.g., Nordic community emblem), secured the support of legislative and Executive groups, and developed and modernized the 1940s local and state chapters in the US. 

Marty Ford obtained her J.D. from George Washington University Law Center, Master's in Communication Design at the Pratt Institute, and BA from the University of Virginia. She has testified before US Congress on numerous occasions, "corresponds regularly through CCD", and provides testimony to the Ways and Means Subcommittee, House and Senate Appropriations Committee, and Senate Finance Committee, among others. 

Marty Ford's Biography can be found at:

Marty Ford was part of the Executive Team under Arc-US Director Alan Abeson, who was part of a university Consortium of University of Minnesota, Syracuse University, and University of Illinois-Chicago with funding from the National Institute on Disability Research and Rehabilitation. She currently serves at the Arc-US under the leadership of new Executive Director Peter Berns. Marty Ford worked at the Consortium of Citizens with Disabilities with Allan Bergman who represented United Cerebral Palsy-US in the 1980s and also served (with Julie Ann Racino) as Formation Co-Chair of Public Administration and Disability at the American Society for Public Administration, 2015-2017. 

Marty Ford and Paul Marchand have been cited in the new book, Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US (Racino, 2014).

Nominating Date: October 18, 2017 for ASPA Awards in Denver, Colorado

Nomination Received: Williams Shields, Jr., Executive Director, American Society for Public Administration, October 18, 2017